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出版社: Springer; 1999 (2012年11月14日) 平装: 205页 语种: 英语 ISBN: 1461369827 条形码: 9781461369820 商品尺寸: 15.5 x 1.3 x 23.5 cm 商品重量: 318 g ASIN: 1461369827
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Castellanos Jose A. 1969 Mobile robot localization and map building a multisensor fusion approach Jose A Castellanos Juan d. tardos p cm. Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN978-14613-6982-0 IsBN978-1-4615-4405-0( e Book) DOI10.10071978-14615-4405-0 1. Mobile robots. 2. Multisensor data fusion. 1. Tardos Juan D.1961-Il. Title T211.415.C372000 629892-dc21 00-020317 Copyright C 1999 by Springer Science+Business Media New York Originally published by Kluwer Academic Publishers in 1999 Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition 1999 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, mechanical, ph copying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC Printed on acid-free paper To Angel, Maria jose and yolanda JAC To Maria. lucia and pedro JDT Contents Preface XI Acknowledgements X111 1 Introduction 1.1 The first-Location Problem 1.2 Simultaneous Localization and Map Building 1469 2 Uncertain Geometric information 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Models for Geometric Uncertainty 2.3 Symmetries and Perturbations Model 13 2.4 Pairing geometric Features .20 2.5 Suboptimal estimation Techniques 26 2.6 Summary 30 3 Segment-based Representation of Indoor Environments 31 3.1 Introduction ,31 3.2 Representation of Laser Range Readings 33 3.3 2D Laser Segments ...38 3.4 Segmentation of Laser Readings 41 3.5 Estimating Edges from Points 48 3.6 Fusion of 2D Laser edges 51 3.7 Estimating the Length of a Segment 53 3.8 Summary 54 4 Detecting High-Level Features by Multisensor Fusion 57 4.1 Introduction 57 4.2 High Level Features ..59 4.3 Processing monocular Vision Information 69 CONTENTS 4.4 Calibration of the Multisensor System 4.5 Fusing Laser and vision 75 4.6 Experimental results 77 4.7 Summary 5 The First-Location Problem 83 5.1 Introduction 83 5.2 Formulation of the first -Location Problem 88 5.3 Geometric Constraints 90 5. 4 Matching Algorithms 101 5.5 Estimation of the mobile robot location 104 5.6 Visibility Constraints 07 5.7 Experimenting with Laser Observations 108 5.8 Experimenting with Multisensor Fusion .120 5.9 Summar 125 6 Simultaneous Localization and Map building 127 6.1 Introduction ...127 6.2 The Symmetries and Perturbations Map..........131 6. 3 Neglecting Correlations .147 6.4 Experimental Results 151 6.5 Navigation in the sPmap 165 6.6 Summar 168 7 Conclusions 171 a Transformations and Jacobian matrices in 2D 175 A 1 Homogeneous Matrices and Location Vectors ..175 A 2 Jacobians of the Composition ,,,,.177 A 3 Jacobian of the inversion 178 A4 Differential Transformations and Jacobian of a Trans formation 179 B Operations with Uncertain Locations 181 B. 1 Inversion of LaB 181 B 2 Composition of LwF and LFE .,181 B 3 Centering LW E 182 C Geometric relations 183 D Experimental Equipment 187 D 1 Mobile robot otilio 187 D.2 Mobile robotⅤEGA 189 D 3 Mobile robot macrobe 190 Bibliography 193 Index 203 Preface The present work is a revision of the doctoral dissertation of J. A. Cas- tellanos presented in the department of Computer Science and Systems Engineering of the University of Zaragoza(Spain)in May 1998 The work is structured in six main chapters which progressively dis cuss the contributions of our research introduced in chapter 1. Thus chapter 2 briefly describes the Symmetries and Perturbations Mode (SPmodel, the geometric entities used throughout the work and some results about suboptimal estimation techniques, describing both a re- cursive formulation and a batch formulation. Chapter 3 deals with the construction of a segment-based representation of the local environment of the mobile robot by using a laser rangefinder sensor. In chapter 4 we semantically upgrade the segment-based representation by using higher level features obtained by multisensor fusion. A monocular vision sys tem provides redundant information about the environment which is combined with the information gathered by the laser rangefinder to in- crease the robustness and reliability of features from early stages of the processing. Chapter 5 presents the first-location problem as a matching between observed features, both monosensorial features and multisen- sorial features, and an apriori hand-made model map of the navigation area.Finally, chapter 6 describes our contributions to the problem of simultaneous mobile robot localization and map building by introducing the concept of Symmetries and Perturbations Map(SPmap). Experi mental results are described throughout the work to verify the applic ability of the theoretical results to the real navigation of a mobile robot in a human-made indoor environment Jose A. Castellanos and Juan D. tardos Zaragoza, December 15th, 1999 Acknowledgements If I have seen farther than other men, it is because I stood on the shoulders of giants Sir isaac newton The research work presented in this document has been developed during the last few years in the robotics and Real Time group of the Department of Computer Science and Systems Engineering of the Uni- versity of Zaragoza. The authors would like to thank to all the group members for their collaboration and fruitful discussions We are in debt with Jose Neira, who actively collaborated during the development of the work and who participated in many of the pub- lications derived from the present research activities. Also, we thank to Jose M. Martinez-Montiel for his ever present support, his advice and his always welcomed suggestions Part of the research work was performed in other European research laboratories during the research stays of Jose A. Castellanos. On the one hand, in the laboratoire d'Informatique, de robotique et de micro electronique de Montpellier(france), where we would like to thank to P. Dauchez as head of the robotics department and also to M. J. Aldon and O. Strauss for their help during the research stays. On the other hand, we sincerely thank Prof. Gunther Schmidt, head of the Lehrstuhl fur Steuerungs-und Regelungstechnik, of the Technische Universitat of Munchen(Germany) for supporting the research stay in Munich and for his contributions to achieve good research goals Different organizations funded the research activities described in this document. Authors would like to thank to the CICYt projects TAP94-0390 and TAP97-0992-C02-01 of the Spanish government, to the Programa Europa of the CAI-dGa and to the uE project ERNET contract CHRX-Cr93-0381 Chapter 1 Introduction Caminante, son tus huellas/el camino,y nada mas caminante, no hay camino, se hace camino al andar Al andar se hace camino,/y al volver la vista atras se ve la senda que nunca se ha de volver a pisar Caminante, no hay camino,/ sino estelas en la mar Campos de castillo Antonio machado During the last decade, many researchers have dedicated their efforts to construct revolutionary machines and to provide them with some kind of artificial intelligence to perform some of the most disgusting risky or monotonous tasks historically assigned to human beings. Among those machines, mobile robots are undoubtedly in the cutting-edge of the cur rent research directions. An initial classification of mobile robots can be immediately considered: on the one hand, mobile robots oriented to human-made indoor environments: on the other hand, mobile robots ori- ented to unstructured outdoor environments, which could include flying oriented robots, space-oriented robots and underwater robots In our opinion the most extended motion mechanism for surface mobile robots is the wheeled-based mechanism, adapted both to the fat surfaces, found in human-made environments, and to rough terrain found in outdoor environments. However, some researchers have repor ted successful developments with legged-based mobile robots capable of climbing up stairs, although they require further investigation The research work presented in this book focuses on wheeled-based mobile robots that navigate in human-made indoor environments. Some assumptions are considered throughout the described work J. A. Castellanos et al., Mobile robot localization and Map building C Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

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