Ray Tracing Gems-High-Quality and Real-Time Rendering with DXR.pdf

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Introduction This book is a must-have for anyone serious about rendering in real time. With the announcement of new ray tracing APIs and hardware to support them, developers can easily create real-time applications with ray tracing as a core component. As ray tracing on the GPU becomes faster, it wi
Ray Tracing Gems: High-Quality and Real-Time Rendering with dXR and other aPls Edited by Jacob Munkberg Eric haines Matt pharr Tomas Akenine-moller Peter Shirley Section editors Ingo Wald Alexander Keller Chris Wyman Morgan McGuire SBN-13pbk]:978-1-4842-4426-5 SBN-13( electronic:978-1-4842-4427-2 htts:// doi. org/10.1007/978-1-4842-4427-2 Library of Congress Control Number: 2019934207 Copyright o 2019 by NviDIA Trademarked names, logos, and images may appear in this book. Rather than use a trademark symbol with every occurrence of a trademarked name, logo, or image we use the names, logos, and images only in an editoria fashion and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. The use in his publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein c9080 Open Access This book is licensed under the terms of the creative Commons Attribution-nonCommercial-noderivatives4.0InternationalLicense(http://creativecommons org/Licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits any noncommercial use, sharing, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if you modified the licensed material. You do not have permission under this license to share adapted material derived from this book or parts of it The images or other third party material in this book are included in the book's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material if material is not included in the book,s creative commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. Managing Director, Apress Media LLC: Welmoed Spahr Acquisitions Editor: Natalie Pao Development editor: James Markham Coordinating editor: Jessica vakili CoverimagedesignedbyFreepik[www.freepik.com Distributed to the book trade worldwide by Springer Science+Business Media New York, 233 Spring Stree 6thFloorNewYorkNy10013.Phone1-800-springer,fax[201)348-4505,e-mailorders-nylaspringer-sbm.com orvisitwww.springeronline.comApressMediaLlcisaCaliforniaLlcandthesolememberlowner)isSpringer Science Business Media Finance Inc (SsBM Finance Inc). SSBM Finance Inc is a Delaware corporation Forinformationontranslationspleasee-mailrights(dapress.comorvisitwww.apress.com/rights-permissions Apress titles may be purchased in bulk for academic, corporate, or promotional use e Book versions and licenses are also available for most titles. For more information, reference our Print and e Book Bulk Sales web page at www.apress.com/bulk-sales Any source code or other supplementary material referenced by the author in this book is available to readers on Githubviathebooksproductpagelocatedatwww.apress.com/9781484244265.Formoredetailedinformation pleasevisitwww.apress.com/source-code Printed on acid-free paper Table of contents Preface Foreword………XV Contributors Notation PART I: Ray Tracing Basics 5 Chapter1: Ray tracing Terminology…,,,…,…,…,…7 1 Historical notes 2 Definitions 8 Chapter 2: What is a Ray ■■■■■■■■■■■■■a■■■■■■■■■■a■■日■■■■■■■■a■■■Ba■a■ 15 2. 1 Mathematical Description of a ray 15 2.2 Ray Intervals 17 2. 3 Rays in DXR 18 2.4 Conclusion 19 Chapter 3: Introduction to DirectX Raytracing 21 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Overview 21 33 Getting Started… 22 3.4 The directX raytracing pipeline ...................................................23 35 New hLsl Support for directX raytracing…………………………25 3.6 A Simple hlsl ray Tracing Example………………………………28 3.70 verview of Host Initialization for DirectX Raytracing………30 3.8 Basic DXR Initialization and Setup........3 TABLE OF CONTENTS 3.9 Ray Tracing Pipeline State Objects…………………………37 3.10 Shader tables...................41 3.11 Dispatching rays……….….….…………….……………………43 3.12 Digging Deeper and Additional resources 44 3.13 Conclusion Chapter 4:a Planetarium Dome master camera ■a■口a■a■a■a■a■a■na 49 4.1 Introduction . 4.2 Methods. 4.3 Planetarium Dome Master Projection Sample Code .58 Chapter 5: Computing Minima and Maxima of Subarrays meem 61 5.1 Motivatⅰon 5.2 Naive Full Table lookup. .....................................................................62 5. 3 The Sparse Table Method 62 5. 4 The[recursive range tree method .64 5.5 Iterative Range tree Queries. ............................................................66 5.6Results....wwwww..69 5.7 Summary.… .69 PART II: Intersections and Efficiency ■口■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■a■■ Chapter 6: A Fast and robust method for Avoiding Self-Intersection mmm. 77 6.1 Introduction 77 6.2 Method .78 6.3 Conclusion. Chapter 7: Precision Improvements for Ray/sphere Intersection nmm n 87 7. 1 Basic Ray/Sphere Intersection .87 7.2 Floating-Point Precision Considerations 89 7.3 Related resources ....................93 TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 8: Cool Patches: A Geometric Approach to Ray/ Bilinear patch intersections...………95 8.1 Introduction and prior art 95 8.2 GARP Details 100 8.3 Discussion of results 102 8.4Code..105 Chapter 9: Multi-Hit Ray tracing in DXR.n 111 9.1 Introduction 9.2| mplementation… 113 9.3 Results 119 9. 4 Conclusions .124 Chapter 10: A Simple Load-Balancing Scheme with High Scaling Efficiency 127 0.1 Introduction .127 0.2 Requirements .128 10.3L0 ad Balancing… 128 10.4 Results 132 PART II Reflections. Refractions, and shadows ■■■口■■■■口■■■m■ 137 Chapter 11: Automatic Handling of Materials in Nested Volumes.m. 139 1.1 Modeling volumes 139 1.2 Algorithm∴ 142 11.3 Limitations… 146 Chapter 12: A Microfacet-Based Shadowing Function to Solve the Bump Terminator Problem ■■■■a■■■a■a■■■■■■a■■■■a■口a口■■■ 149 12.1Introduction,wwwwwwwwwwwwwwww.149 2.2 Previous work 150 12.3 Method 151 2.4 Results 157 TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 13: Ray Traced shadows: Maintaining Real-Time Frame Rates ■■■■■■■■■■■口■■ ■■■■■■■国■■■■■■■■■■日■■■■ n159 13.1 Introduction 159 13.2 Related work 161 13.3 Ray Traced Shadows. ........162 13.4 Adaptive sampling 164 13.5 mplementation……………..171 13.6 Results 175 13.7 Conclusion and future work 179 Chapter 14: Ray-Guided volumetric Water caustics in Single Scattering Media with DXR 183 14.1Introduction .183 14.2 Volumetric Lighting and Refracted Light………………186 14.3 Algorithm 189 14.iMplementation Details 197 14.5 Results .198 14.fUture Work 200 14.dEmo 200 PART IV: Sampling 205 Chapter15:0 n the Importance of sampling……,…,……207 15.1 Introduction w207 15.2 Example: Ambient occlusion 208 15.3 Understanding Variance 213 15.4 Direct illumination 216 15.5 Conclusion 221 Chapter16:5 ampling Transformations Z00……………223 16.1 The mechanics of sampling…………… 223 16.2 Introduction to distributions ..w..224 TABLE OF CONTENTS 16.3One-dimensionaldistributionswwwwww.226 6.4 TWo-Dimensional distributions 230 16.5 Uniformly Sampling Surfaces………… 234 6.6 Sampling Directions 239 6.7 Volume scattering 243 16.8 Adding to the Zoo Collection .244 Chapter 17: Ignoring the Inconvenient When Tracing Rays.mmmmmmmmmmmnn 247 7.1 Introduction 247 17.2 Motivation .247 17.3 Clamping…… .250 17.4Path Regularization .251 7.5 Conclusion 252 Chapter 18: Importance Sampling of Many Lights on the GPU 255 18.1 Introduction 255 18.2 Review of Previous algorithms 257 18.3 Foundations. ...................259 18 4 Algorithm 265 18.5 Results .271 18.6 Conclusion 280 PART V: Denoising and Filtering …287 Chapter 19: Cinematic Rendering in UE4 with Real-Time Ray tracing and Denoising,…,,…,…289 19.1| introductⅰon 289 19.2 Integrating Ray Tracing in Unreal Engine 4 .290 19.3 Real-Time Ray Tracing and Denoising 300 9.4 Conclusions 317 TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 20: Texture Level of Detail Strategies for Real-Time Ray Tracing…,……,……321 20.1 Introduction 321 20.2 Background.… 323 20.3 Texture Level of detail Algorithms ..................... 324 20.4 Implementation…..…….….……36 20.5 Comparison and results……………….……………….……38 20.6 Code 342 Chapter 21: Simple Environment Map Filtering Using Ray cones and ray differentials 347 21.1 Introduction 347 21.2 Ray Cones 348 21.3 Ray Differentials 349 21.4 Results 349 Chapter 22: Improving Temporal Antialiasing with Adaptive Ray Tracing.……………,……………353 22.1INtroduction..w.w.wwwwww......353 22.2 Previous Temporal Antialiasing 355 223 A New algorithm…… 356 22.4 Early Results…… 363 22.5 Limitations 366 22.6 The Future of Real-Time Ray Traced Antialiasing 367 22.7 Conclusion 368 PART V: Hybrid Approaches and Systems 375 Chapter 23: Interactive Light Map and Irradiance Volume Preview in frostbite…………377 23.1Introduction,wwww.377 23.2 GI Solver pipeline.....................................378 23.3 Acceleration Techniques 393 TABLE OF CONTENTS 23.4 Live Update……..398 23.5 Performance and hardware 400 23.6 Conclusion...…………405 Chapter 24: Real-Time Global Illumination with Photon Mapping. m., 409 24.1 Introduction ........w...409 24.2 Photon Tracing…….….….….….….….….….….….….411 24.3 Screen- Space Irradiance estimation 418 24.4 Filtering… ………425 24.5 Results 430 24.fUture Work .434 Chapter25: Hybrid Rendering for real-- Time Ray Tracing……,…437 25.1 Hybrid Rendering Pipeline Overview…………………4.37 25.2 Pipeline breakdown...…..….……….……….…….439 25.3 Performance 468 25.4 Future.2469 25.5Code...469 Chapter 26: Deferred Hybrid Path Tracing 475 26.1 Overview .475 26.2 Hybrid Approach 26.3 BVH Traversal.....478 26.4 Diffuse Light transport.….….….….………481 26.5 Specular Light Transport……………4.85 26.6 Transparency....………487 26.7 Performance .488 Chapter 27: Interactive Ray Tracing Techniques for High-Fidelity Scientific Visualization 493 27.1 Introduction ......................... 493 27.2 Challenges Associated with Ray Tracing Large Scenes 494

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