wipo_pub_944_2019.pdf

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了解知识产权热点,了解世界科技发展趋势,人工智能……,世界科技创新全面分析。全面了解各向发展动向。城乡互联、智能出行等多领域多政策。
Except where otherwise indicated, this work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 IGO License The user is allowed to reproduce, distribute adapt, translate and publicly perform this publication, including for commercial uros ithout explicit permission, provided that the con tent is accompanied by an acknowledgement that WIPO is the source and that it is clearly indicated if changes were made to the original content Suggested citation: WIPO(2019). World Intellectual Property Report 2019: The geography of innovation: Local hotspots, glob al networks. Geneva: World Intellectual Property Organization Adaptation/translation/derivatives should not carry any official emblem or logo, unless they have been approved and validat d by WiPo. Please contact us via the WIPo website to obtain permission. -or any derivative work, please include the following disclaimer: The Secretariat of WiPo assumes no liability or responsibil- ity with regard to the transformation or translation of the origi na content When content published by WIPO, such as images, graphics trademarks or logos, is attributed to a third party, the user of such content is solely responsible for clearing the rights with the right holder(s) To view a copy of this license, please visit: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/ The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any WPO,2019 apinion whatsoever on the part of WIPo concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area or of its authorities, or World Intellectual Property Organization concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries 34, chemin des Colombettes, P O. Box 18 CH-1211 Geneva 20. Switzerland This publication is not intended to reflect the views of the Member States or the wiPo Secretariat SBN:978-92805-3095-7 The mention of specific companies or products of manufac ceO Attribution 3.0 IGo turers does not imply that they are endorsed or recommend (CC BY 3.0 IGO) ed by WIPO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned Printed in Switzerland Table of contents Foreword Chapter 1 The changing global geography of innovation 15 Executive summary 1.1 Concentration of innovation in urban hotspots 16 Technical notes 123 1.2 Networks and the global spread of innovation Acronyms 128 1.3 Conclusions 25 Chapter 2 Global networks of innovation hotspots 31 2.1 The two sides of global knowledge production 2.2 Global networks of collaboration and sourcing 2.3 Local innovation and global networks of nnovative hubs 51 Chapter 3 Auto and tech companies- the drive for autonomous vehicles 61 3.1 Definitions 62 3.2 Technological evolution of the automotive industr 3.3 Technological shift 3. 4 Competition and cooperation in AV 3.5 Role of geography in AV technology 69 3. 6 AV innovation countries and cities 69 3.7 Is Av technology changing the geography of innovation automotive industry 76 3.8 Potential positive and negative impacts of AVs Chapter 4 Plant biotechnology- connecting urban innovation and rural application 4.1 The rising importance of plant biotechnology 4.2 The innovation landscape of plant biotechnology 4.3 The innovation network of plant biotechnolog 103 4. 4 Future of plant biotechnology 105 Chapter 5 Policy perspectives: the case for openness 113 5. 1 The economics of openness 113 5.2 Openness in the 9 R&d productivit 117 Foreword Geography has always played a central role in the organization of economic activity. Cities first formed as trading hubs for agricultural and manufactured goods. Many of them emerged where trading routes intersected or where goods moved from one mode of transportation to another with the onset of the industrial revolution. cities became the center of large-scale industrial production. As industrialization advanced some expanded into megacities, while others saw their fortunes decline crew In the innovation-driven economy of the 21st century, in some detail how innovators from around the world cities continue to play a pivotal role. However, the collaborate with each other. The emerging picture is a forces shaping the geography of economic activity have complex one, with a limited number of global innova changed. Companies want to be in urban hotspots, tion hotspots in a few countries accounting for most because that is where the most skilled and talented innovative activity Collaboration is widespread, taking workers live. Well-paying and rewarding jobs as well as place in increasingly larger teams and-for most but not the buzz of city life, in turn, attract more highly skilled all countries-it is increasingly cross-border in nature individuals to those hotspots. Innovation also relies crucially on the exchange of ideas among people. Such In addition to this economy-wide perspective, the exchanges usually happen best when people live and report includes two case studies that explore in detail work in close proximity to each other the evolving geography of innovation for two fields o technology undergoing rapid change. One case study Yet, the economic geography of the 21st century has focuses on autonomous vehicles technology. It details another important dimension Technology has facili- how innovation is reshaping the car industry, with tated new ways of collaborating and sharing knowl- information technology (t) companies challenging edge, connecting skilled individuals located far apart. established carmakers. This transformation is broaden The emerging global innovation landscape is thus one ing the innovation landscape, with several IT-focused of geographically concentrated centers of excellence hotspots- which traditionally were not at the center of around the world, which are embedded in a global automotive innovation -gaining prominence network carrying knowledge in many directions The other case study focuses on agricultural biotech The evolving geography of innovation matters. nology. Scientific and inventive activity in crop biotech Governments around the world strive to promote a nology is concentrated in a few high-income econom policy environment conducive to innovation. Doing and China, and-within those economies - mostly in so requires an understanding of the local dynamics large metropolitan areas. Relative to other areas of inno of innovation ecosystems. For example, where can vation, however, it is more geographically widespread government-funded research best enhance nascent spanning many countries in Africa, Latin America and technological capabilities? How can smart city plan- Asia. This partly reflects the need to adapt innovations ning encourage opportunities for knowledge sharing to local conditions and collaboration? More broadly, the spread of innova tive activity within economies increasingly affects the The evidence presented in this report highlights how regional distribution of incomes. Understanding the globally intertwined innovation has become. Crucially, driving forces behind this trend, in turn, enables better the ability of companies and researchers to collab policy responses orate across borders has relied on policies largely favoring openness and international cooperation.The Our World Intellectual Property Report 2019 offers report makes the case for maintaining policy openness an empirical perspective on the global geography of and further strengthening international cooperation innovation. It does so by following the geographical Solving increasingly complex technological problems footprint that innovators have left in millions of patent will require ever larger and more specialized teams of and scientific publication records over the past few researchers. International collaboration helps form such embraced this big data approach in identifying the ously pushing the cobal technology frontier Continu- decades. WIPO's Global Innovation Index has already teams and will therefore be indispensable in world's largest science and technology clusters. This report goes further. It employs more data going back While offering original insights, the analysis presented several decades, analyzes time trends and explores in this report also comes with certain caveats. Patent orld Intellectual Property Report 2019 The evidence presented in this report highlights how globally and scientific publication data provide rich and interna tionally comparable information on innovative activity intertwined However, they neither capture all such activity, nor do they fully portray the rich interactions taking place innovation that sape the direction f lobal innoyation networks has become are manifold and interact with one another in intricate ways. Further research that offers empirical guidance on these forces would be of much value We hope that this report contributes to a greater ap ciation of the importance that geography exerts on innovative activity and, in doing so, that it helps refining policies to promote innovation and ensuring that its benetits are widely shared Francis gurry Director general Acknowledgements This report was developed under the general direc- The report team benefited greatly from external reviews tion of Francis Gurry(Director General) and super- and comments of the draft chapters and background vised by Carsten Fink(Chief Economist). The report papers by Cristina Chaminade(Lund University was prepared by a team led by Julio Raffo Head of Frederique Sachwald(Science and Technology Innovation Economics), Intan Hamdan-Livramento Observatory, Hceres), Maryann P Feldman University (Economist), Maryam Zehtabchi(Economist) and Deyun of North Carolina), Kazuyuki motohashi (University of Yin(Fellow), all from WIPO,'s Economics and Statistics Tokyo), Luciana Marques vieira(School of Business Division(ESD) Administration of Sao Paulo, FGV EAESP), Jose Maria da Silveira (Universidade Estadual de campinas The report draws on various background papers UNICAMP)and can huang ( zhejiang University) commissioned for this report. In particular, Chapter 1 is based on a literature review prepared by riccardo Additional input, comments and data were kindly Crescenzi (London School of Economics, LSE), Simona provided by Lesya Baudoin, Daniel Benoliel, Shakeel lammarino(LSE), Carolin loramashvili(LsE), Andres Bhatti, Maurice Blount, Lee Branstetter, Richard Rodriguez-Pose(LSE) and Michael Storper(LSE and Corken, Alica Daly, Gaetan de Rassenfosse, Philipp University of California, LOs Angeles GroBkurth, Christopher Harrison, Irene Kitsara, Agenor Lahatte. Orion Penner Leontino rezende taveira, David Ernest Miguelez( Groupe de Recherche en Economie Sapinho, Florian Seliger and Usui Yoshiaki Theorique et Appliquee, GREThA, Bordeaux), Francesco Lissoni (GREThA Bordeaux and Bocconi Hao Zhou and Kyle Bergquist assisted in putting togeth University), Christian Chacua(GREThA Bordeaux), er data used in this report Massimiliano Coda-Zabaletta(GREThA Bordeaux) and Gianluca Tarasconi contributed the background report Samah Do Carmo Figueiredo, Caterina valles Games and assisted in the data preparation for Chapter 2. and cecile roure provided valuable administra- tive su Chapter 3 relies on background research conducted by Kristin Dziczek(Center for Automotive Research, Finally, gratitude is due to editorial and design CAR group), Eric Dennis(CAR group), Qiang Hong colleagues in the Publications Division for leading the (CAR group), Diana Douglas(CAR group), Yen Chen production of the report and to Richard Waddington (CAR group), Valerie Sathe-Brugeman(CAR group) for his editing work. The WIPo Library provided helpful and Edwin Marples(CAR group) research support throughout the reports development and the Printing Plant provided high-quality printing Finally, Gregory D Graff(Colorado State University) services. All worked hard to meet tight deadlines contributed to the background report for chapter 4 Executive summary The geography of innovation can seem paradoxical. The generation of scientific knowledge and innovation is both increasingly global and intensely concentrated in a few local hotspots. New players, particularly Asian countries, are responsible for more and more scientific research and inventions, which were once the almost exclusive domain of a handful of rich economies. At the same time this greater international spread has been accompanied -at country level -by increased concentration of innovative activity within a few densely populated areas. These urban areas are vibrant innovation ecosystems, such as Silicon Valley outside San Francisco in the u. s or china's shenzhen- Hong Kong, a more recent hotspot Executive summar The paradox is more apparent than real, however. the the increasingly dispersed and interconnected flow of world's most innovative urban agglomerations are also knowledge and innovation has mirrored the develop the most open to the outside world. Sometimes, they ment of complex global networks, or value chains, for are better connected internationally than they are to the production and delivery of goods and services their national hinterlands. Together, they form what In particular, multinational companies have located economists have come to refer to as global innovation knowledge-intensive production stages- most impor networks. Skilled individuals and innovative companies tantly research and development(R&D)-in urban are at the center of these networks. Highly skilled agglomerations that offer specialized knowledge and workers gravitate towards innovative urban areas skills. More generally, it is the need for greater collabo because they want to interact with one another and ration in the face of growing technological complexity enjoy the amenities of metropolitan life. Metropoles that has driven both the increasing concentration of offer companies a large local market, specialized innovation in certain urban areas and its global spread suppliers and academic institutions that allow them to reap economies of scale and scope. Knowledge, in turn, flows more fluidly among company and university Innovation is increasingly local researchers if they work in close proximity, fueling the innovation engine On the basis of geocoded inventor and scientific autho data, this report explores the geography of innova- This WIPO report analyses these dual trends, exploit- tion within countries and identifies the worlds main ng a rich dataset of millions of patent applications and agglomerations of scientific and technological activity scientific publications. Its findings argue for increasing It looks at two types: global innovation hotspots, which openness and support for collaboration if innovation is show the highest density of scientitic publication or to continue to flourish patent activity; and specialized niche clusters, where the density of inventors and scientific authors is high in a given field but not high enough generally to be a Knowledge creation is spreading global hotspot to more and more countries For most of the period from 1970 to 2000 only three Innovation is geographically concentrated countries-the United States(U.S), Japan and Germany in a limited number of areas accounted for two thirds of all patenting activity worldwide. When the remaining Western European The emerging landscape of global hotspots and niche economies are included the share reached some 90 clusters shows that inventive and scientific activity percent. But in the years since, the rest of the world has within each country is persistently concentrated in a come trom almost nowhere to account for almost one few large, cosmopolitan and prosperous urban areas third of all patenting activity. Published scientific data In the U.s., hotspots around New York, San Francisco have spread even more widely, with the rest of the world and Boston accumulated roughly a quarter of all U.s going from less than a quarter of all such publication patents filed from 2011 to 2015. In China, those around to around half over the last 20 years Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen increased their share from 36 percent to 52 percent of all Chinese patents China and the republic of Korea are largely respon- during the same period sible for the rising share of new areas in knowledge production and innovation: they account for over 20 Less than 19 percent of all inventive and scientific output percent of patents registered in the years 2015-2017, worldwide is generated by inventors or researchers compared to under 3 percent in 1990-1999. Other located outside hotspots and niche clusters. Despite countries, notably Australia, Canada, India and Israel, the big change in the global innovation picture, more have also contributed to the global spread of innova- than 160 countries- the vast majority-still generate tion. Many middle-income countries, however, and all little innovation activity and do not host any hotspot lower-income countries continue to have substantially or niche cluster lower levels of patenting activit

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