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spring2.0中文参考手册.chm

Spring Framework 中文开发参考手册 即使拥有良好的工具和优秀技术,应用软件开发也是困难重重。应用开发往往牵扯到方方面面,每件事情都难以控制,而且,开发周期也很难把握(除非它的确是一个重量级的复杂应用,倒也有情可原)。Spring提供了一种轻量级的解决方案,用于建立“快装式企业应用”。在此基础上,Spring还提供了包括声明式事务管理,RMI或Web Services远程访问业务逻辑,以及可以多种方法进行的持久化数据库地解决方案。另外,Spring还有一个全功能的 MVC框架,并能透明的把 AOP 集成到你的软件中去。
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MySQL中文参考手册.chm<br/>449kb<br/><br/>0 译者序 <br/>1 MySQL的一般的信息<br/>1.1 什么是MySQL? <br/>1.2 关于本手册<br/>1.2.1 本手册中使用的约定 <br/>1.3 MySQL的历史 <br/>1.4 MySQL的主要特征 <br/>1.5 MySQL稳定性? <br/>1.6 顺应2000年 <br/>1.7 SQL一般信息和教程 <br/>1.8 有用的MySQL相关链接 <br/>2 MySQL 邮件列表及如何提问或报告错误<br/>2.1 MySQL邮件列表 <br/>2.2 提问或报告错误 <br/>2.3 怎样报告错误或问题 <br/>2.4 在邮件列表上回答问题的指南 <br/>3 MySQL的许可证和技术支持<br/>3.1 MySQL的许可证政策 <br/>3.2 MySQL 使用的版权<br/>3.2.1 可能的未来版权改变 <br/>3.3 MySQL商业性分发 <br/>3.4 许可证实例<br/>3.4.1 销售使用 MySQL的产品 <br/>3.4.2 销售MySQL相关的服务 <br/>3.4.3 ISP MySQL服务 <br/>3.4.4 运营一个使用MySQL的Web服务器 <br/>3.5 MySQL的许可证和技术支持费用<br/>3.5.1 付款信息 <br/>3.5.2 联系信息 <br/>3.6 商业性支持的类型<br/>3.6.1 基本的电子邮件支持 <br/>3.6.2 扩展的电子邮件支持 <br/>3.6.3 登录支持 <br/>3.6.4 扩展的登录支持 <br/>4 安装 MySQL <br/>4.1 怎样获得MySQL <br/>4.2 MySQL支持的操作系统 <br/>4.3 使用MySQL哪个版本 <br/>4.4 怎样和何时发布更新版本 <br/>4.5 安装布局 <br/>4.6 安装MySQL二进制代码分发<br/>4.6.1 Linux RPM注意事项 <br/>4.6.2 构造客户程序 <br/>4.6.3 系统特定的问题<br/>4.6.3.1 Linux 注意事项 <br/>4.6.3.2 HP-UX 注意事项 <br/>4.7 安装 MySQL源代码分发<br/>4.7.1 快速安装概述 <br/>4.7.2 运用补丁 <br/>4.7.3 典型的configure选项 <br/>4.8 编译问题? <br/>4.9 MIT-pthreads 注意事项 <br/>4.10 Perl 安装说明<br/>4.10.1 在Unix操作系统上安装 Perl <br/>4.10.2 在 Win32上安装 ActiveState Perl <br/>4.10.3 在 Win32 上安装 MySQL Perl 分发 <br/>4.10.4 使用 Perl DBI/DBD接口遇到的问题 <br/>4.11 系统特定的问题<br/>4.11.1 Solaris注意事项 <br/>4.11.2 Solaris 2.7 注意事项 <br/>4.11.3 Solaris x86 注意事项 <br/>4.11.4 SunOS 4 注意事项 <br/>4.11.5 Linux (所有的Linux版本)注意事项<br/>4.11.5.1 Linux-x86 注意事项 <br/>4.11.5.2 RedHat 5.0 注意事项 <br/>4.11.5.3 RedHat 5.1 注意事项 <br/>4.11.5.4 Linux-SPARC 注意事项 <br/>4.11.5.5 Linux-Alpha 注意事项 <br/>4.11.5.6 MkLinux 注意事项 <br/>4.11.5.7 Qube2 Linux 注意事项 <br/>4.11.6 Alpha-DEC-Unix 注意事项 <br/>4.11.7 Alpha-DEC-OSF1 注意事项 <br/>4.11.8 SGI-Irix 注意事项 <br/>4.11.9 FreeBSD 注意事项 <br/>4.11.10 NetBSD 注意事项 <br/>4.11.11 BSD/OS 注意事项<br/>4.11.11.1 BSD/OS 2.x 注意事项 <br/>4.11.11.2 BSD/OS 3.x 注意事项 <br/>4.11.11.3 BSD/OS 4.x 注意事项 <br/>4.11.12 SCO 注意事项 <br/>4.11.13 SCO Unixware 7.0 注意事项 <br/>4.11.14 IBM-AIX 注意事项 <br/>4.11.15 HP-UX 注意事项 <br/>4.12 Win32 注意事项<br/>4.12.1 在 Win32 上安装 MySQL <br/>4.12.2 在 Win95 /Win98上启动 MySQL <br/>4.12.3 在 NT 上启动 MySQL <br/>4.12.4 在 Win32 上运行 MySQL <br/>4.12.5 用 SSH 从 Win32 连接一个远程MySQL <br/>4.12.6 MySQL-Win32与Unix MySQL 比较 <br/>4.13 OS/2 注意事项 <br/>4.14 TcX 二进制代码 <br/>4.15 安装后期(post-installation)的设置与测试<br/>4.15.1 运行mysql_install_db 的问题 <br/>4.15.2 启动 MySQL 服务器的问题 <br/>4.15.3 自动启动和停止 MySQL <br/>4.15.4 选项文件 <br/>4.16 升级和降级(downgrading)时有什么特别要做的事情吗?<br/>4.16.1 从一个 3.22 版本升级到 3.23 <br/>4.16.2 从一个 3.21 版本升级到 3.22 <br/>4.16.3 从一个 3.20 版本升级到 3.21 <br/>4.16.4 升级到其他的体系结构 <br/>5 MySQL 与标准的兼容性?<br/>5.1 MySQL对ANSI SQL92 的扩充 <br/>5.2 以ANSI模式运行 MySQL <br/>5.3 MySQL相比ANSI SQL92的差别 <br/>5.4 MySQL 缺乏的功能<br/>5.4.1 子选择(Sub-selects) <br/>5.4.2 SELECT INTO TABLE <br/>5.4.3 事务(Transactions) <br/>5.4.4 存储过程和触发器 <br/>5.4.5 外键(Foreign Keys)<br/>5.4.5.1 不使用外键的理由 <br/>5.4.6 视图(Views) <br/>5.4.7 '--'作为一个 注解的开始 <br/>5.5 MySQL 遵循什么标准? <br/>5.6 怎样处理没有提交/回卷(COMMIT / ROLLBACK) <br/>6 MySQL 存取权限系统<br/>6.1 权限系统做什么 <br/>6.2 MySQL用户名和口令 <br/>6.3 与MySQL服务器连接 <br/>6.4 使你的口令安全 <br/>6.5 MySQL 提供的权限 <br/>6.6 权限系统工作原理 <br/>6.7 存取控制,阶段1:连接证实 <br/>6.8 存取控制,阶段2:请求证实 <br/>6.9 权限更改何时生效 <br/>6.10 建立初始的 MySQL权限 <br/>6.11 向MySQL增加新用户权限 <br/>6.12 怎样设置口令 <br/>6.13 存取拒绝(Access Denied)错误的原因 <br/>6.14 怎样使MySQL安全以对抗解密高手(cracker) <br/>7 MySQL 语言参考<br/>7.1 文字:怎样写字符串和数字<br/>7.1.1 字符串 <br/>7.1.2 数字 <br/>7.1.3 十六进制值 <br/>7.1.4 NULL值 <br/>7.1.5 数据库,表,索引,列和别名的命名<br/>7.1.5.1 名字的大小写敏感性 <br/>7.2 用户变量 <br/>7.3 列类型<br/>7.3.1 列类型的存储要求 <br/>7.3.5 数字类型 <br/>7.3.6 日期和时间类型<br/>7.3.6.1 问题和日期类型 <br/>7.3.6.2 DATETIME,DATE和TIMESTAMP类型 <br/>7.3.6.3 TIME类型 <br/>7.3.6.4 YEAR类型 <br/>7.3.7 字符串类型<br/>7.3.7.1 CHAR和VARCHAR类型 <br/>7.3.7.2 BLOB和TEXT类型 <br/>7.3.7.3 ENUM类型 <br/>7.3.7.4 SET类型 <br/>7.3.8 为列选择正确的类型 <br/>7.3.9 列索引 <br/>7.3.10 多列索引 <br/>7.3.11 使用来自其他数据库引擎的列类型 <br/>7.4 用在SELECT和WHERE子句的函数<br/>7.4.1 分组函数 <br/>7.4.2 常用的算术运算 <br/>7.4.3 位函数 <br/>7.4.4 逻辑运算 <br/>7.4.5 比较运算符 <br/>7.4.6 字符串比较函数 <br/>7.4.7 类型转换运算符 <br/>7.4.8 控制流函数 <br/>7.4.9 数学函数 <br/>7.4.10 字符串函数 <br/>7.4.11 日期和时间函数 <br/>7.4.12 其他函数 <br/>7.4.13 与GROUP BY子句一起使用的函数 <br/>7.5 CREATE DATABASE (创建数据库)句法 <br/>7.6 DROP DATABASE (抛弃数据库)句法 <br/>7.7 CREATE TABLE (创建表)句法<br/>7.7.1 隐含(silent)的列指定变化 <br/>7.8 ALTER TABLE (改变表)句法 <br/>7.9 OPTIMIZE TABLE (优化表) 句法 <br/>7.10 DROP TABLE (抛弃表)句法 <br/>7.11 DELETE (删除)句法 <br/>7.12 SELECT (精选)句法 <br/>7.13 JOIN (联接)句法 <br/>7.14 INSERT (插入)句法 <br/>7.15 REPLACE (替换)句法 <br/>7.16 LOAD DATA INFILE (装载数据到文件)句法 <br/>7.17 UPDATE (更新)句法 <br/>7.18 USE (使用)句法 <br/>7.19 FLUSH (清除缓存)句法 <br/>7.20 KILL (杀灭)句法 <br/>7.21 SHOW (显示)句法(得到关于表,列等的信息) <br/>7.22 EXPLAIN (解释)句法(得到关于SELECT的信息) <br/>7.23 DESCRIBE (描述)句法(得到列的信息) <br/>7.24 LOCK TABLES/UNLOCK TABLES (锁定表/解锁表)句法 <br/>7.25 SET OPTION (设置选项)句法 <br/>7.26 GRANT (授权)和REVOKE (撤回)句法 <br/>7.27 CREATE INDEX (创建索引)句法 <br/>7.28 DROP INDEX (抛弃索引)句法 <br/>7.29 注释句法 <br/>7.30 CREATE FUNCTION/DROP FUNCTION (创建函数/抛弃函数)句法 <br/>7.31 MySQL对保留字很挑剔吗? <br/>8 MySQL 教程<br/>8.1 联接和断开服务器 <br/>8.2 输入查询 <br/>8.3 常用查询的例子<br/>8.3.1 列的最大值 <br/>8.3.2 拥有某个列的最大值的行 <br/>8.3.3 列的最大值:按组:只有值 <br/>8.3.4 拥有某个字段的组间最大值的行 <br/>8.3.5 使用外键 <br/>8.4 创建并使用一个数据库<br/>8.4.1 创建并选用一个数据库 <br/>8.4.2 创建一个数据库表 <br/>8.4.3 将数据装入数据库表 <br/>8.4.4 从一个数据库表检索信息<br/>8.4.4.1 选择所有数据 <br/>8.4.4.2 选择特定行 <br/>8.4.4.3 选择特定列 <br/>8.4.4.4 排序行 <br/>8.4.4.5 日期计算 <br/>8.4.4.6 NULL值操作 <br/>8.4.4.7 模式匹配 <br/>8.4.4.8 行计数 <br/>8.4.5 使用多个数据库表 <br/>8.5 获得数据库和表的信息 <br/>8.6 以批处理模式使用mysql <br/>8.7 从"双胞项目"中查询<br/>8.7.1 找出所有非独处的双胞胎 <br/>8.7.2 显示关于双胞胎近况的表 <br/>9 MySQL 服务器功能<br/>9.1 MySQL 支持哪些语言?<br/>9.1.1 用于数据和排序的字符集 <br/>9.1.2 增加一个新的字符集 <br/>9.1.3 多字节字符支持 <br/>9.2 更新日志 <br/>9.3 MySQL数据库表可以有多大? <br/>9.4 MySQL数据库表类型 <br/>10 从 MySQL 得到最大的性能<br/>10.1 优化概述 <br/>10.2 系统/编译时和启动参数的调节<br/>10.2.1 编译和链接如何影响 MySQL 的速度 <br/>10.2.2 磁盘问题<br/>10.2.2.1 为数据库和表格使用符号链接 <br/>10.2.3 调节服务器参数 <br/>10.2.4 MySQL 怎样打开和关闭数据库表 <br/>10.2.5 在同一个数据库中创建大量数据库表的缺点 <br/>10.2.6 为什么有这么多打开的表? <br/>10.2.7 MySQL 怎样使用内存 <br/>10.2.8 MySQL 怎样锁定数据库表 <br/>10.2.9 数据库表级锁定的问题 <br/>10.3 使你的数据尽可能小 <br/>10.4 MySQL 索引的使用 <br/>10.5 存取或更新数据的查询速度<br/>10.5.1 估计查询性能 <br/>10.5.2 SELECT 查询的速度 <br/>10.5.3 MySQL 怎样优化WHERE子句 <br/>10.5.4 MySQL 怎样优化LEFT JOIN <br/>10.5.5 MySQL 怎样优化LIMIT <br/>10.5.6 INSERT查询的速度 <br/>10.5.7 UPDATE查询的速度 <br/>10.5.8 DELETE查询的速度 <br/>10.6 选择一种表类型<br/>10.6.1 静态(定长)表的特点 <br/>10.6.2 动态表的特点 <br/>10.6.3 压缩表的特点 <br/>10.6.4 内存(In-memory table)表的特点 <br/>10.7 其他优化技巧 <br/>10.8 使用你自己的基准测试 <br/>10.9 设计选择 <br/>10.10 MySQL 设计局限/折衷 <br/>10.11 可移植性 <br/>10.12 我们已将MySQL用在何处? <br/>11 MySQL 基准套件 <br/>12 MySQL 实用程序<br/>12.1 各种 MySQL 程序概述 <br/>12.2 管理一个 MySQL 服务器 <br/>12.3 从 MySQL 数据库和表中倒出(dump)结构和数据 <br/>12.4 从文本文件导入数据 <br/>12.5 MySQL 压缩只读表生成器 <br/>13 维护 MySQL 安装<br/>13.1 使用myisamchk进行表维护和崩溃恢复<br/>13.1.1 myisamchk的调用语法 <br/>13.1.2 myisamchk的内存使用 <br/>13.2 13.2 建立一个数据库表维护规范 <br/>13.3 获得关于一个表的信息 <br/>13.4 使用myisamchk进行崩溃恢复<br/>13.4.1 怎样检查表的出错 <br/>13.4.2 怎样修复表 <br/>13.4.3 表优化 <br/>13.5 日志文件维护 <br/>14 为MySQL增加新函数<br/>14.1 增加一个新的用户定义函数<br/>14.1.1 UDF调用顺序 <br/>14.1.2 参数处理 <br/>14.1.3 返回值和出错处理 <br/>14.1.4 编译并安装用户定义函数 <br/>14.2 增加一个新的原生(native)函数 <br/>15 为MySQL增加新过程<br/>15.1 analyse过程 <br/>15.2 编写一个过程 <br/>16 MySQL对 ODBC 支持<br/>16.1 MyODBC 支持的操作系统 <br/>16.2 怎样报告 MyODBC的问题 <br/>16.3 已知可用 MyODBC一起工作的程序 <br/>16.4 怎样填写 ODBC 管理程序的各种域 <br/>16.5 怎样在ODBC中获得一个AUTO_INCREMENT列的值 <br/>16.6 报告 MyODBC 的问题 <br/>17 与一些常用程序一起使用MySQL<br/>17.1 与 Apache一起使用 MySQL <br/>18 问题和常见的错误<br/>18.1 如果 MySQL总是崩溃怎么办 <br/>18.2 使用 MySQL 时一些常见错误<br/>18.2.1 MySQL server has gone away错误 <br/>18.2.2 Can't connect to [local] MySQL server错误 <br/>18.2.3 Host '...' is blocked错误 <br/>18.2.4 Out of memory错误 <br/>18.2.5 Packet too large错误 <br/>18.2.6 The table is full错误 <br/>18.2.7 Commands out of sync in client错误 <br/>18.2.8 Ignoring user错误 <br/>18.2.9 Table 'xxx' doesn't exist错误 <br/>18.3 MySQL 怎样处理一个溢出的磁盘 <br/>18.4 怎样从一个文本文件运行SQL命令 <br/>18.5 MySQL 在哪儿存储临时文件 <br/>18.6 怎样保护"/tmp/mysql.sock"不被删除 <br/>18.7 Access denied 出错 <br/>18.8 怎样作为一个一般用户运行 MySQL <br/>18.9 怎样重新设置一个忘记的口令 <br/>18.10 文件许可权限问题 <br/>18.11 文件没找到 <br/>18.12 使用DATE列的问题 <br/>18.13 时区问题 <br/>18.14 在搜索中的大小写敏感性 <br/>18.15 NULL值问题 <br/>18.16 alias问题 <br/>18.17 从相关的表中删除行 <br/>18.18 解决没有匹配行的问题 <br/>18.19 ALTER TABLE问题 <br/>18.20 怎样改变一个表中列的次序 <br/>19 解决MySQL 一些常见的问题<br/>19.1 数据库复制 <br/>19.2 数据库备份 <br/>19.3 在同一台机器上运行多个 MySQL 服务器 <br/>20 MySQL 客户工具和 API<br/>20.1 MySQL C API <br/>20.2 C API数据类型 <br/>20.3 C API函数概述 <br/>20.4 C API函数描述<br/>20.4.1 mysql_affected_rows () <br/>20.4.2 mysql_close () <br/>20.4.3 mysql_connect () <br/>20.4.4 mysql_change_user () <br/>20.4.5 mysql_create_db () <br/>20.4.6 mysql_data_seek () <br/>20.4.7 mysql_debug () <br/>20.4.8 mysql_drop_db () <br/>20.4.9 mysql_dump_debug_info () <br/>20.4.10 mysql_eof () <br/>20.4.11 mysql_errno () <br/>20.4.12 mysql_error () <br/>20.4.13 mysql_escape_string () <br/>20.4.14 mysql_fetch_field () <br/>20.4.15 mysql_fetch_fields () <br/>20.4.16 mysql_fetch_field_direct () <br/>20.4.17 mysql_fetch_lengths () <br/>20.4.18 mysql_fetch_row () <br/>20.4.19 mysql_field_count () <br/>20.4.20 mysql_field_seek () <br/>20.4.21 mysql_field_tell () <br/>20.4.22 mysql_free_result () <br/>20.4.23 mysql_get_client_info () <br/>20.4.24 mysql_get_host_info () <br/>20.4.25 mysql_get_proto_info () <br/>20.4.26 mysql_get_server_info () <br/>20.4.27 mysql_info () <br/>20.4.28 mysql_init () <br/>20.4.29 mysql_insert_id () <br/>20.4.30 mysql_kill () <br/>20.4.31 mysql_list_dbs () <br/>20.4.32 mysql_list_fields () <br/>20.4.33 mysql_list_processes () <br/>20.4.34 mysql_list_tables () <br/>20.4.35 mysql_num_fields () <br/>20.4.36 mysql_num_rows () <br/>20.4.37 mysql_options () <br/>20.4.38 mysql_ping () <br/>20.4.39 mysql_query () <br/>20.4.40 mysql_real_connect () <br/>20.4.41 mysql_real_query () <br/>20.4.42 mysql_reload () <br/>20.4.43 mysql_row_seek () <br/>20.4.44 mysql_row_tell () <br/>20.4.45 mysql_select_db () <br/>20.4.46 mysql_shutdown () <br/>20.4.47 mysql_stat () <br/>20.4.48 mysql_store_result () <br/>20.4.49 mysql_thread_id () <br/>20.4.50 mysql_use_result () <br/>20.4.51 为什么在mysql_query()返回成功后mysql_store_result()有时返回NULL? <br/>20.4.52 我能从查询得到什么结果? <br/>20.4.53 我怎样才能获得最后插入的行的唯一ID? <br/>20.4.54 链接 C API的问题 <br/>20.4.55 怎样制作一个线程安全(thread-safe)的客户 <br/>20.5 MySQL Perl API<br/>20.5.1 DBI与DBD::mysql <br/>20.5.2 DBI接口 <br/>20.5.3 更多的DBI/DBD信息 <br/>20.6 MySQL Eiffel 包装 <br/>20.7 MySQL Java 连接(JDBC) <br/>20.8 MySQL PHP API <br/>20.9 MySQL C++ API <br/>20.10 MySQL Python API <br/>20.11 MySQL TCL API <br/>21 怎样对比MySQL与其他数据库<br/>21.1 怎样对比MySQL和mSQL <br/>21.1.1 怎样将mSQL工具转换到MySQL <br/>21.1.2 mSQL和MySQL的 客户机/服务器通讯协议有何不同 <br/>21.1.3 mSQL 2.0 SQL句法与MySQL有何不同 <br/>21.2 怎样对比MySQL与PostgreSQL <br/>A 一些 MySQL 用户 <br/>B 贡献的程序 <br/>C MySQL贡献者 <br/>D MySQL 变迁的历史记录 <br/>E MySQL中已知的错误和设计缺限 <br/>F 我们想要在未来加入到MySQL 的计划表( TODO ) <br/>G 对移植到其他系统的说明 <br/>H MySQL 正则表达式句法的描述 <br/>I 什么是 Unireg? <br/>J 针对非微软操作系统的 MySQL 服务器许可证 <br/>K 针对微软操作系统的 MySQL 许可证 <br/>SQL命令,类型和函数索引 <br/>概念索引 <br/>

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python3.6.5参考手册 chm

Python参考手册,官方正式版参考手册,chm版。以下摘取部分内容:Navigation index modules | next | Python » 3.6.5 Documentation » Python Documentation contents What’s New in Python What’s New In Python 3.6 Summary – Release highlights New Features PEP 498: Formatted string literals PEP 526: Syntax for variable annotations PEP 515: Underscores in Numeric Literals PEP 525: Asynchronous Generators PEP 530: Asynchronous Comprehensions PEP 487: Simpler customization of class creation PEP 487: Descriptor Protocol Enhancements PEP 519: Adding a file system path protocol PEP 495: Local Time Disambiguation PEP 529: Change Windows filesystem encoding to UTF-8 PEP 528: Change Windows console encoding to UTF-8 PEP 520: Preserving Class Attribute Definition Order PEP 468: Preserving Keyword Argument Order New dict implementation PEP 523: Adding a frame evaluation API to CPython PYTHONMALLOC environment variable DTrace and SystemTap probing support Other Language Changes New Modules secrets Improved Modules array ast asyncio binascii cmath collections concurrent.futures contextlib datetime decimal distutils email encodings enum faulthandler fileinput hashlib http.client idlelib and IDLE importlib inspect json logging math multiprocessing os pathlib pdb pickle pickletools pydoc random re readline rlcompleter shlex site sqlite3 socket socketserver ssl statistics struct subprocess sys telnetlib time timeit tkinter traceback tracemalloc typing unicodedata unittest.mock urllib.request urllib.robotparser venv warnings winreg winsound xmlrpc.client zipfile zlib Optimizations Build and C API Changes Other Improvements Deprecated New Keywords Deprecated Python behavior Deprecated Python modules, functions and methods asynchat asyncore dbm distutils grp importlib os re ssl tkinter venv Deprecated functions and types of the C API Deprecated Build Options Removed API and Feature Removals Porting to Python 3.6 Changes in ‘python’ Command Behavior Changes in the Python API Changes in the C API CPython bytecode changes Notable changes in Python 3.6.2 New make regen-all build target Removal of make touch build target Notable changes in Python 3.6.5 What’s New In Python 3.5 Summary – Release highlights New Features PEP 492 - Coroutines with async and await syntax PEP 465 - A dedicated infix operator for matrix multiplication PEP 448 - Additional Unpacking Generalizations PEP 461 - percent formatting support for bytes and bytearray PEP 484 - Type Hints PEP 471 - os.scandir() function – a better and faster directory iterator PEP 475: Retry system calls failing with EINTR PEP 479: Change StopIteration handling inside generators PEP 485: A function for testing approximate equality PEP 486: Make the Python Launcher aware of virtual environments PEP 488: Elimination of PYO files PEP 489: Multi-phase extension module initialization Other Language Changes New Modules typing zipapp Improved Modules argparse asyncio bz2 cgi cmath code collections collections.abc compileall concurrent.futures configparser contextlib csv curses dbm difflib distutils doctest email enum faulthandler functools glob gzip heapq http http.client idlelib and IDLE imaplib imghdr importlib inspect io ipaddress json linecache locale logging lzma math multiprocessing operator os pathlib pickle poplib re readline selectors shutil signal smtpd smtplib sndhdr socket ssl Memory BIO Support Application-Layer Protocol Negotiation Support Other Changes sqlite3 subprocess sys sysconfig tarfile threading time timeit tkinter traceback types unicodedata unittest unittest.mock urllib wsgiref xmlrpc xml.sax zipfile Other module-level changes Optimizations Build and C API Changes Deprecated New Keywords Deprecated Python Behavior Unsupported Operating Systems Deprecated Python modules, functions and methods Removed API and Feature Removals Porting to Python 3.5 Changes in Python behavior Changes in the Python API Changes in the C API What’s New In Python 3.4 Summary – Release Highlights New Features PEP 453: Explicit Bootstrapping of PIP in Python Installations Bootstrapping pip By Default Documentation Changes PEP 446: Newly Created File Descriptors Are Non-Inheritable Improvements to Codec Handling PEP 451: A ModuleSpec Type for the Import System Other Language Changes New Modules asyncio ensurepip enum pathlib selectors statistics tracemalloc Improved Modules abc aifc argparse audioop base64 collections colorsys contextlib dbm dis doctest email filecmp functools gc glob hashlib hmac html http idlelib and IDLE importlib inspect ipaddress logging marshal mmap multiprocessing operator os pdb pickle plistlib poplib pprint pty pydoc re resource select shelve shutil smtpd smtplib socket sqlite3 ssl stat struct subprocess sunau sys tarfile textwrap threading traceback types urllib unittest venv wave weakref xml.etree zipfile CPython Implementation Changes PEP 445: Customization of CPython Memory Allocators PEP 442: Safe Object Finalization PEP 456: Secure and Interchangeable Hash Algorithm PEP 436: Argument Clinic Other Build and C API Changes Other Improvements Significant Optimizations Deprecated Deprecations in the Python API Deprecated Features Removed Operating Systems No Longer Supported API and Feature Removals Code Cleanups Porting to Python 3.4 Changes in ‘python’ Command Behavior Changes in the Python API Changes in the C API Changed in 3.4.3 PEP 476: Enabling certificate verification by default for stdlib http clients What’s New In Python 3.3 Summary – Release highlights PEP 405: Virtual Environments PEP 420: Implicit Namespace Packages PEP 3118: New memoryview implementation and buffer protocol documentation Features API changes PEP 393: Flexible String Representation Functionality Performance and resource usage PEP 397: Python Launcher for Windows PEP 3151: Reworking the OS and IO exception hierarchy PEP 380: Syntax for Delegating to a Subgenerator PEP 409: Suppressing exception context PEP 414: Explicit Unicode literals PEP 3155: Qualified name for classes and functions PEP 412: Key-Sharing Dictionary PEP 362: Function Signature Object PEP 421: Adding sys.implementation SimpleNamespace Using importlib as the Implementation of Import New APIs Visible Changes Other Language Changes A Finer-Grained Import Lock Builtin functions and types New Modules faulthandler ipaddress lzma Improved Modules abc array base64 binascii bz2 codecs collections contextlib crypt curses datetime decimal Features API changes email Policy Framework Provisional Policy with New Header API Other API Changes ftplib functools gc hmac http html imaplib inspect io itertools logging math mmap multiprocessing nntplib os pdb pickle pydoc re sched select shlex shutil signal smtpd smtplib socket socketserver sqlite3 ssl stat struct subprocess sys tarfile tempfile textwrap threading time types unittest urllib webbrowser xml.etree.ElementTree zlib Optimizations Build and C API Changes Deprecated Unsupported Operating Systems Deprecated Python modules, functions and methods Deprecated functions and types of the C API Deprecated features Porting to Python 3.3 Porting Python code Porting C code Building C extensions Command Line Switch Changes What’s New In Python 3.2 PEP 384: Defining a Stable ABI PEP 389: Argparse Command Line Parsing Module PEP 391: Dictionary Based Configuration for Logging PEP 3148: The concurrent.futures module PEP 3147: PYC Repository Directories PEP 3149: ABI Version Tagged .so Files PEP 3333: Python Web Server Gateway Interface v1.0.1 Other Language Changes New, Improved, and Deprecated Modules email elementtree functools itertools collections threading datetime and time math abc io reprlib logging csv contextlib decimal and fractions ftp popen select gzip and zipfile tarfile hashlib ast os shutil sqlite3 html socket ssl nntp certificates imaplib http.client unittest random poplib asyncore tempfile inspect pydoc dis dbm ctypes site sysconfig pdb configparser urllib.parse mailbox turtledemo Multi-threading Optimizations Unicode Codecs Documentation IDLE Code Repository Build and C API Changes Porting to Python 3.2 What’s New In Python 3.1 PEP 372: Ordered Dictionaries PEP 378: Format Specifier for Thousands Separator Other Language Changes New, Improved, and Deprecated Modules Optimizations IDLE Build and C API Changes Porting to Python 3.1 What’s New In Python 3.0 Common Stumbling Blocks Print Is A Function Views And Iterators Instead Of Lists Ordering Comparisons Integers Text Vs. Data Instead Of Unicode Vs. 8-bit Overview Of Syntax Changes New Syntax Changed Syntax Removed Syntax Changes Already Present In Python 2.6 Library Changes PEP 3101: A New Approach To String Formatting Changes To Exceptions Miscellaneous Other Changes Operators And Special Methods Builtins Build and C API Changes Performance Porting To Python 3.0 What’s New in Python 2.7 The Future for Python 2.x Changes to the Handling of Deprecation Warnings Python 3.1 Features PEP 372: Adding an Ordered Dictionary to collections PEP 378: Format Specifier for Thousands Separator PEP 389: The argparse Module for Parsing Command Lines PEP 391: Dictionary-Based Configuration For Logging PEP 3106: Dictionary Views PEP 3137: The memoryview Object Other Language Changes Interpreter Changes Optimizations New and Improved Modules New module: importlib New module: sysconfig ttk: Themed Widgets for Tk Updated module: unittest Updated module: ElementTree 1.3 Build and C API Changes Capsules Port-Specific Changes: Windows Port-Specific Changes: Mac OS X Port-Specific Changes: FreeBSD Other Changes and Fixes Porting to Python 2.7 New Features Added to Python 2.7 Maintenance Releases PEP 434: IDLE Enhancement Exception for All Branches PEP 466: Network Security Enhancements for Python 2.7 Acknowledgements What’s New in Python 2.6 Python 3.0 Changes to the Development Process New Issue Tracker: Roundup New Documentation Format: reStructuredText Using Sphinx PEP 343: The ‘with’ statement Writing Context Managers The contextlib module PEP 366: Explicit Relative Imports From a Main Module PEP 370: Per-user site-packages Directory PEP 371: The multiprocessing Package PEP 3101: Advanced String Formatting PEP 3105: print As a Function PEP 3110: Exception-Handling Changes PEP 3112: Byte Literals PEP 3116: New I/O Library PEP 3118: Revised Buffer Protocol PEP 3119: Abstract Base Classes PEP 3127: Integer Literal Support and Syntax PEP 3129: Class Decorators PEP 3141: A Type Hierarchy for Numbers The fractions Module Other Language Changes Optimizations Interpreter Changes New and Improved Modules The ast module The future_builtins module The json module: JavaScript Object Notation The plistlib module: A Property-List Parser ctypes Enhancements Improved SSL Support Deprecations and Removals Build and C API Changes Port-Specific Changes: Windows Port-Specific Changes: Mac OS X Port-Specific Changes: IRIX Porting to Python 2.6 Acknowledgements What’s New in Python 2.5 PEP 308: Conditional Expressions PEP 309: Partial Function Application PEP 314: Metadata for Python Software Packages v1.1 PEP 328: Absolute and Relative Imports PEP 338: Executing Modules as Scripts PEP 341: Unified try/except/finally PEP 342: New Generator Features PEP 343: The ‘with’ statement Writing Context Managers The contextlib module PEP 352: Exceptions as New-Style Classes PEP 353: Using ssize_t as the index type PEP 357: The ‘__index__’ method Other Language Changes Interactive Interpreter Changes Optimizations New, Improved, and Removed Modules The ctypes package The ElementTree package The hashlib package The sqlite3 package The wsgiref package Build and C API Changes Port-Specific Changes Porting to Python 2.5 Acknowledgements What’s New in Python 2.4 PEP 218: Built-In Set Objects PEP 237: Unifying Long Integers and Integers PEP 289: Generator Expressions PEP 292: Simpler String Substitutions PEP 318: Decorators for Functions and Methods PEP 322: Reverse Iteration PEP 324: New subprocess Module PEP 327: Decimal Data Type Why is Decimal needed? The Decimal type The Context type PEP 328: Multi-line Imports PEP 331: Locale-Independent Float/String Conversions Other Language Changes Optimizations New, Improved, and Deprecated Modules cookielib doctest Build and C API Changes Port-Specific Changes Porting to Python 2.4 Acknowledgements What’s New in Python 2.3 PEP 218: A Standard Set Datatype PEP 255: Simple Generators PEP 263: Source Code Encodings PEP 273: Importing Modules from ZIP Archives PEP 277: Unicode file name support for Windows NT PEP 278: Universal Newline Support PEP 279: enumerate() PEP 282: The logging Package PEP 285: A Boolean Type PEP 293: Codec Error Handling Callbacks PEP 301: Package Index and Metadata for Distutils PEP 302: New Import Hooks PEP 305: Comma-separated Files PEP 307: Pickle Enhancements Extended Slices Other Language Changes String Changes Optimizations New, Improved, and Deprecated Modules Date/Time Type The optparse Module Pymalloc: A Specialized Object Allocator Build and C API Changes Port-Specific Changes Other Changes and Fixes Porting to Python 2.3 Acknowledgements What’s New in Python 2.2 Introduction PEPs 252 and 253: Type and Class Changes Old and New Classes Descriptors Multiple Inheritance: The Diamond Rule Attribute Access Related Links PEP 234: Iterators PEP 255: Simple Generators PEP 237: Unifying Long Integers and Integers PEP 238: Changing the Division Operator Unicode Changes PEP 227: Nested Scopes New and Improved Modules Interpreter Changes and Fixes Other Changes and Fixes Acknowledgements What’s New in Python 2.1 Introduction PEP 227: Nested Scopes PEP 236: __future__ Directives PEP 207: Rich Comparisons PEP 230: Warning Framework PEP 229: New Build System PEP 205: Weak References PEP 232: Function Attributes PEP 235: Importing Modules on Case-Insensitive Platforms PEP 217: Interactive Display Hook PEP 208: New Coercion Model PEP 241: Metadata in Python Packages New and Improved Modules Other Changes and Fixes Acknowledgements What’s New in Python 2.0 Introduction What About Python 1.6? New Development Process Unicode List Comprehensions Augmented Assignment String Methods Garbage Collection of Cycles Other Core Changes Minor Language Changes Changes to Built-in Functions Porting to 2.0 Extending/Embedding Changes Distutils: Making Modules Easy to Install XML Modules SAX2 Support DOM Support Relationship to PyXML Module changes New modules IDLE Improvements Deleted and Deprecated Modules Acknowledgements Changelog Python 3.6.5 final? Tests Build Python 3.6.5 release candidate 1? Security Core and Builtins Library Documentation Tests Build Windows macOS IDLE Tools/Demos C API Python 3.6.4 final? Python 3.6.4 release candidate 1? Core and Builtins Library Documentation Tests Build Windows macOS IDLE Tools/Demos C API Python 3.6.3 final? Library Build Python 3.6.3 release candidate 1? Security Core and Builtins Library Documentation Tests Build Windows IDLE Tools/Demos Python 3.6.2 final? Python 3.6.2 release candidate 2? Security Python 3.6.2 release candidate 1? Core and Builtins Library Security Library IDLE C API Build Documentation Tools/Demos Tests Windows Python 3.6.1 final? Core and Builtins Build Python 3.6.1 release candidate 1? Core and Builtins Library IDLE Windows C API Documentation Tests Build Python 3.6.0 final? Python 3.6.0 release candidate 2? Core and Builtins Tools/Demos Windows Build Python 3.6.0 release candidate 1? Core and Builtins Library C API Documentation Tools/Demos Python 3.6.0 beta 4? Core and Builtins Library Documentation Tests Build Python 3.6.0 beta 3? Core and Builtins Library Windows Build Tests Python 3.6.0 beta 2? Core and Builtins Library Windows C API Build Tests Python 3.6.0 beta 1? Core and Builtins Library IDLE C API Tests Build Tools/Demos Windows Python 3.6.0 alpha 4? Core and Builtins Library IDLE Tests Windows Build Python 3.6.0 alpha 3? Core and Builtins Library Security Library Security Library IDLE C API Build Tools/Demos Documentation Tests Python 3.6.0 alpha 2? Core and Builtins Library Security Library Security Library IDLE Documentation Tests Windows Build Windows C API Tools/Demos Python 3.6.0 alpha 1? Core and Builtins Library Security Library Security Library Security Library IDLE Documentation Tests Build Windows Tools/Demos C API Python 3.5.3 final? Python 3.5.3 release candidate 1? Core and Builtins Library Security Library Security Library IDLE C API Documentation Tests Tools/Demos Windows Build Python 3.5.2 final? Core and Builtins Tests IDLE Python 3.5.2 release candidate 1? Core and Builtins Security Library Security Library Security Library Security Library Security Library IDLE Documentation Tests Build Windows Tools/Demos Windows Python 3.5.1 final? Core and Builtins Windows Python 3.5.1 release candidate 1? Core and Builtins Library IDLE Documentation Tests Build Windows Tools/Demos Python 3.5.0 final? Build Python 3.5.0 release candidate 4? Library Build Python 3.5.0 release candidate 3? Core and Builtins Library Python 3.5.0 release candidate 2? Core and Builtins Library Python 3.5.0 release candidate 1? Core and Builtins Library IDLE Documentation Tests Python 3.5.0 beta 4? Core and Builtins Library Build Python 3.5.0 beta 3? Core and Builtins Library Tests Documentation Build Python 3.5.0 beta 2? Core and Builtins Library Python 3.5.0 beta 1? Core and Builtins Library IDLE Tests Documentation Tools/Demos Python 3.5.0 alpha 4? Core and Builtins Library Build Tests Tools/Demos C API Python 3.5.0 alpha 3? Core and Builtins Library Build Tests Tools/Demos Python 3.5.0 alpha 2? Core and Builtins Library Build C API Windows Python 3.5.0 alpha 1? Core and Builtins Library IDLE Build C API Documentation Tests Tools/Demos Windows The Python Tutorial 1. Whetting Your Appetite 2. Using the Python Interpreter 2.1. Invoking the Interpreter 2.1.1. Argument Passing 2.1.2. Interactive Mode 2.2. The Interpreter and Its Environment 2.2.1. Source Code Encoding 3. An Informal Introduction to Python 3.1. Using Python as a Calculator 3.1.1. Numbers 3.1.2. Strings 3.1.3. Lists 3.2. First Steps Towards Programming 4. More Control Flow Tools 4.1. if Statements 4.2. for Statements 4.3. The range() Function 4.4. break and continue Statements, and else Clauses on Loops 4.5. pass Statements 4.6. Defining Functions 4.7. More on Defining Functions 4.7.1. Default Argument Values 4.7.2. Keyword Arguments 4.7.3. Arbitrary Argument Lists 4.7.4. Unpacking Argument Lists 4.7.5. Lambda Expressions 4.7.6. Documentation Strings 4.7.7. Function Annotations 4.8. Intermezzo: Coding Style 5. Data Structures 5.1. More on Lists 5.1.1. Using Lists as Stacks 5.1.2. Using Lists as Queues 5.1.3. List Comprehensions 5.1.4. Nested List Comprehensions 5.2. The del statement 5.3. Tuples and Sequences 5.4. Sets 5.5. Dictionaries 5.6. Looping Techniques 5.7. More on Conditions 5.8. Comparing Sequences and Other Types 6. Modules 6.1. More on Modules 6.1.1. Executing modules as scripts 6.1.2. The Module Search Path 6.1.3. “Compiled” Python files 6.2. Standard Modules 6.3. The dir() Function 6.4. Packages 6.4.1. Importing * From a Package 6.4.2. Intra-package References 6.4.3. Packages in Multiple Directories 7. Input and Output 7.1. Fancier Output Formatting 7.1.1. Old string formatting 7.2. Reading and Writing Files 7.2.1. Methods of File Objects 7.2.2. Saving structured data with json 8. Errors and Exceptions 8.1. Syntax Errors 8.2. Exceptions 8.3. Handling Exceptions 8.4. Raising Exceptions 8.5. User-defined Exceptions 8.6. Defining Clean-up Actions 8.7. Predefined Clean-up Actions 9. Classes 9.1. A Word About Names and Objects 9.2. Python Scopes and Namespaces 9.2.1. Scopes and Namespaces Example 9.3. A First Look at Classes 9.3.1. Class Definition Syntax 9.3.2. Class Objects 9.3.3. Instance Objects 9.3.4. Method Objects 9.3.5. Class and Instance Variables 9.4. Random Remarks 9.5. Inheritance 9.5.1. Multiple Inheritance 9.6. Private Variables 9.7. Odds and Ends 9.8. Iterators 9.9. Generators 9.10. Generator Expressions 10. Brief Tour of the Standard Library 10.1. Operating System Interface 10.2. File Wildcards 10.3. Command Line Arguments 10.4. Error Output Redirection and Program Termination 10.5. String Pattern Matching 10.6. Mathematics 10.7. Internet Access 10.8. Dates and Times 10.9. Data Compression 10.10. Performance Measurement 10.11. Quality Control 10.12. Batteries Included 11. Brief Tour of the Standard Library — Part II 11.1. Output Formatting 11.2. Templating 11.3. Working with Binary Data Record Layouts 11.4. Multi-threading 11.5. Logging 11.6. Weak References 11.7. Tools for Working with Lists 11.8. Decimal Floating Point Arithmetic 12. Virtual Environments and Packages 12.1. Introduction 12.2. Creating Virtual Environments 12.3. Managing Packages with pip 13. What Now? 14. Interactive Input Editing and History Substitution 14.1. Tab Completion and History Editing 14.2. Alternatives to the Interactive Interpreter 15. Floating Point Arithmetic: Issues and Limitations 15.1. Representation Error 16. Appendix 16.1. Interactive Mode 16.1.1. Error Handling 16.1.2. Executable Python Scripts 16.1.3. The Interactive Startup File 16.1.4. The Customization Modules Python Setup and Usage 1. Command line and environment 1.1. Command line 1.1.1. Interface options 1.1.2. Generic options 1.1.3. Miscellaneous options 1.1.4. Options you shouldn’t use 1.2. Environment variables 1.2.1. Debug-mode variables 2. Using Python on Unix platforms 2.1. Getting and installing the latest version of Python 2.1.1. On Linux 2.1.2. On FreeBSD and OpenBSD 2.1.3. On OpenSolaris 2.2. Building Python 2.3. Python-related paths and files 2.4. Miscellaneous 2.5. Editors and IDEs 3. Using Python on Windows 3.1. Installing Python 3.1.1. Supported Versions 3.1.2. Installation Steps 3.1.3. Removing the MAX_PATH Limitation 3.1.4. Installing Without UI 3.1.5. Installing Without Downloading 3.1.6. Modifying an install 3.1.7. Other Platforms 3.2. Alternative bundles 3.3. Configuring Python 3.3.1. Excursus: Setting environment variables 3.3.2. Finding the Python executable 3.4. Python Launcher for Windows 3.4.1. Getting started 3.4.1.1. From the command-line 3.4.1.2. Virtual environments 3.4.1.3. From a script 3.4.1.4. From file associations 3.4.2. Shebang Lines 3.4.3. Arguments in shebang lines 3.4.4. Customization 3.4.4.1. Customization via INI files 3.4.4.2. Customizing default Python versions 3.4.5. Diagnostics 3.5. Finding modules 3.6. Additional modules 3.6.1. PyWin32 3.6.2. cx_Freeze 3.6.3. WConio 3.7. Compiling Python on Windows 3.8. Embedded Distribution 3.8.1. Python Application 3.8.2. Embedding Python 3.9. Other resources 4. Using Python on a Macintosh 4.1. Getting and Installing MacPython 4.1.1. How to run a Python script 4.1.2. Running scripts with a GUI 4.1.3. Configuration 4.2. The IDE 4.3. Installing Additional Python Packages 4.4. GUI Programming on the Mac 4.5. Distributing Python Applications on the Mac 4.6. Other Resources The Python Language Reference 1. Introduction 1.1. Alternate Implementations 1.2. Notation 2. Lexical analysis 2.1. Line structure 2.1.1. Logical lines 2.1.2. Physical lines 2.1.3. Comments 2.1.4. Encoding declarations 2.1.5. Explicit line joining 2.1.6. Implicit line joining 2.1.7. Blank lines 2.1.8. Indentation 2.1.9. Whitespace between tokens 2.2. Other tokens 2.3. Identifiers and keywords 2.3.1. Keywords 2.3.2. Reserved classes of identifiers 2.4. Literals 2.4.1. String and Bytes literals 2.4.2. String literal concatenation 2.4.3. Formatted string literals 2.4.4. Numeric literals 2.4.5. Integer literals 2.4.6. Floating point literals 2.4.7. Imaginary literals 2.5. Operators 2.6. Delimiters 3. Data model 3.1. Objects, values and types 3.2. The standard type hierarchy 3.3. Special method names 3.3.1. Basic customization 3.3.2. Customizing attribute access 3.3.2.1. Customizing module attribute access 3.3.2.2. Implementing Descriptors 3.3.2.3. Invoking Descriptors 3.3.2.4. __slots__ 3.3.2.4.1. Notes on using __slots__ 3.3.3. Customizing class creation 3.3.3.1. Metaclasses 3.3.3.2. Determining the appropriate metaclass 3.3.3.3. Preparing the class namespace 3.3.3.4. Executing the class body 3.3.3.5. Creating the class object 3.3.3.6. Metaclass example 3.3.4. Customizing instance and subclass checks 3.3.5. Emulating callable objects 3.3.6. Emulating container types 3.3.7. Emulating numeric types 3.3.8. With Statement Context Managers 3.3.9. Special method lookup 3.4. Coroutines 3.4.1. Awaitable Objects 3.4.2. Coroutine Objects 3.4.3. Asynchronous Iterators 3.4.4. Asynchronous Context Managers 4. Execution model 4.1. Structure of a program 4.2. Naming and binding 4.2.1. Binding of names 4.2.2. Resolution of names 4.2.3. Builtins and restricted execution 4.2.4. Interaction with dynamic features 4.3. Exceptions 5. The import system 5.1. importlib 5.2. Packages 5.2.1. Regular packages 5.2.2. Namespace packages 5.3. Searching 5.3.1. The module cache 5.3.2. Finders and loaders 5.3.3. Import hooks 5.3.4. The meta path 5.4. Loading 5.4.1. Loaders 5.4.2. Submodules 5.4.3. Module spec 5.4.4. Import-related module attributes 5.4.5. module.__path__ 5.4.6. Module reprs 5.5. The Path Based Finder 5.5.1. Path entry finders 5.5.2. Path entry finder protocol 5.6. Replacing the standard import system 5.7. Special considerations for __main__ 5.7.1. __main__.__spec__ 5.8. Open issues 5.9. References 6. Expressions 6.1. Arithmetic conversions 6.2. Atoms 6.2.1. Identifiers (Names) 6.2.2. Literals 6.2.3. Parenthesized forms 6.2.4. Displays for lists, sets and dictionaries 6.2.5. List displays 6.2.6. Set displays 6.2.7. Dictionary displays 6.2.8. Generator expressions 6.2.9. Yield expressions 6.2.9.1. Generator-iterator methods 6.2.9.2. Examples 6.2.9.3. Asynchronous generator functions 6.2.9.4. Asynchronous generator-iterator methods 6.3. Primaries 6.3.1. Attribute references 6.3.2. Subscriptions 6.3.3. Slicings 6.3.4. Calls 6.4. Await expression 6.5. The power operator 6.6. Unary arithmetic and bitwise operations 6.7. Binary arithmetic operations 6.8. Shifting operations 6.9. Binary bitwise operations 6.10. Comparisons 6.10.1. Value comparisons 6.10.2. Membership test operations 6.10.3. Identity comparisons 6.11. Boolean operations 6.12. Conditional expressions 6.13. Lambdas 6.14. Expression lists 6.15. Evaluation order 6.16. Operator precedence 7. Simple statements 7.1. Expression statements 7.2. Assignment statements 7.2.1. Augmented assignment statements 7.2.2. Annotated assignment statements 7.3. The assert statement 7.4. The pass statement 7.5. The del statement 7.6. The return statement 7.7. The yield statement 7.8. The raise statement 7.9. The break statement 7.10. The continue statement 7.11. The import statement 7.11.1. Future statements 7.12. The global statement 7.13. The nonlocal statement 8. Compound statements 8.1. The if statement 8.2. The while statement 8.3. The for statement 8.4. The try statement 8.5. The with statement 8.6. Function definitions 8.7. Class definitions 8.8. Coroutines 8.8.1. Coroutine function definition 8.8.2. The async for statement 8.8.3. The async with statement 9. Top-level components 9.1. Complete Python programs 9.2. File input 9.3. Interactive input 9.4. Expression input 10. Full Grammar specification The Python Standard Library 1. Introduction 2. Built-in Functions 3. Built-in Constants 3.1. Constants added by the site module 4. Built-in Types 4.1. Truth Value Testing 4.2. Boolean Operations — and, or, not 4.3. Comparisons 4.4. Numeric Types — int, float, complex 4.4.1. Bitwise Operations on Integer Types 4.4.2. Additional Methods on Integer Types 4.4.3. Additional Methods on Float 4.4.4. Hashing of numeric types 4.5. Iterator Types 4.5.1. Generator Types 4.6. Sequence Types — list, tuple, range 4.6.1. Common Sequence Operations 4.6.2. Immutable Sequence Types 4.6.3. Mutable Sequence Types 4.6.4. Lists 4.6.5. Tuples 4.6.6. Ranges 4.7. Text Sequence Type — str 4.7.1. String Methods 4.7.2. printf-style String Formatting 4.8. Binary Sequence Types — bytes, bytearray, memoryview 4.8.1. Bytes Objects 4.8.2. Bytearray Objects 4.8.3. Bytes and Bytearray Operations 4.8.4. printf-style Bytes Formatting 4.8.5. Memory Views 4.9. Set Types — set, frozenset 4.10. Mapping Types — dict 4.10.1. Dictionary view objects 4.11. Context Manager Types 4.12. Other Built-in Types 4.12.1. Modules 4.12.2. Classes and Class Instances 4.12.3. Functions 4.12.4. Methods 4.12.5. Code Objects 4.12.6. Type Objects 4.12.7. The Null Object 4.12.8. The Ellipsis Object 4.12.9. The NotImplemented Object 4.12.10. Boolean Values 4.12.11. Internal Objects 4.13. Special Attributes 5. Built-in Exceptions 5.1. Base classes 5.2. Concrete exceptions 5.2.1. OS exceptions 5.3. Warnings 5.4. Exception hierarchy 6. Text Processing Services 6.1. string — Common string operations 6.1.1. String constants 6.1.2. Custom String Formatting 6.1.3. Format String Syntax 6.1.3.1. Format Specification Mini-Language 6.1.3.2. Format examples 6.1.4. Template strings 6.1.5. Helper functions 6.2. re — Regular expression operations 6.2.1. Regular Expression Syntax 6.2.2. Module Contents 6.2.3. Regular Expression Objects 6.2.4. Match Objects 6.2.5. Regular Expression Examples 6.2.5.1. Checking for a Pair 6.2.5.2. Simulating scanf() 6.2.5.3. search() vs. match() 6.2.5.4. Making a Phonebook 6.2.5.5. Text Munging 6.2.5.6. Finding all Adverbs 6.2.5.7. Finding all Adverbs and their Positions 6.2.5.8. Raw String Notation 6.2.5.9. Writing a Tokenizer 6.3. difflib — Helpers for computing deltas 6.3.1. SequenceMatcher Objects 6.3.2. SequenceMatcher Examples 6.3.3. Differ Objects 6.3.4. Differ Example 6.3.5. A command-line interface to difflib 6.4. textwrap — Text wrapping and filling 6.5. unicodedata — Unicode Database 6.6. stringprep — Internet String Preparation 6.7. readline — GNU readline interface 6.7.1. Init file 6.7.2. Line buffer 6.7.3. History file 6.7.4. History list 6.7.5. Startup hooks 6.7.6. Completion 6.7.7. Example 6.8. rlcompleter — Completion function for GNU readline 6.8.1. Completer Objects 7. Binary Data Services 7.1. struct — Interpret bytes as packed binary data 7.1.1. Functions and Exceptions 7.1.2. Format Strings 7.1.2.1. Byte Order, Size, and Alignment 7.1.2.2. Format Characters 7.1.2.3. Examples 7.1.3. Classes 7.2. codecs — Codec registry and base classes 7.2.1. Codec Base Classes 7.2.1.1. Error Handlers 7.2.1.2. Stateless Encoding and Decoding 7.2.1.3. Incremental Encoding and Decoding 7.2.1.3.1. IncrementalEncoder Objects 7.2.1.3.2. IncrementalDecoder Objects 7.2.1.4. Stream Encoding and Decoding 7.2.1.4.1. StreamWriter Objects 7.2.1.4.2. StreamReader Objects 7.2.1.4.3. StreamReaderWriter Objects 7.2.1.4.4. StreamRecoder Objects 7.2.2. Encodings and Unicode 7.2.3. Standard Encodings 7.2.4. Python Specific Encodings 7.2.4.1. Text Encodings 7.2.4.2. Binary Transforms 7.2.4.3. Text Transforms 7.2.5. encodings.idna — Internationalized Domain Names in Applications 7.2.6. encodings.mbcs — Windows ANSI codepage 7.2.7. encodings.utf_8_sig — UTF-8 codec with BOM signature 8. Data Types 8.1. datetime — Basic date and time types 8.1.1. Available Types 8.1.2. timedelta Objects 8.1.3. date Objects 8.1.4. datetime Objects 8.1.5. time Objects 8.1.6. tzinfo Objects 8.1.7. timezone Objects 8.1.8. strftime() and strptime() Behavior 8.2. calendar — General calendar-related functions 8.3. collections — Container datatypes 8.3.1. ChainMap objects 8.3.1.1. ChainMap Examples and Recipes 8.3.2. Counter objects 8.3.3. deque objects 8.3.3.1. deque Recipes 8.3.4. defaultdict objects 8.3.4.1. defaultdict Examples 8.3.5. namedtuple() Factory Function for Tuples with Named Fields 8.3.6. OrderedDict objects 8.3.6.1. OrderedDict Examples and Recipes 8.3.7. UserDict objects 8.3.8. UserList objects 8.3.9. UserString objects 8.4. collections.abc — Abstract Base Classes for Containers 8.4.1. Collections Abstract Base Classes 8.5. heapq — Heap queue algorithm 8.5.1. Basic Examples 8.5.2. Priority Queue Implementation Notes 8.5.3. Theory 8.6. bisect — Array bisection algorithm 8.6.1. Searching Sorted Lists 8.6.2. Other Examples 8.7. array — Efficient arrays of numeric values 8.8. weakref — Weak references 8.8.1. Weak Reference Objects 8.8.2. Example 8.8.3. Finalizer Objects 8.8.4. Comparing finalizers with __del__() methods 8.9. types — Dynamic type creation and names for built-in types 8.9.1. Dynamic Type Creation 8.9.2. Standard Interpreter Types 8.9.3. Additional Utility Classes and Functions 8.9.4. Coroutine Utility Functions 8.10. copy — Shallow and deep copy operations 8.11. pprint — Data pretty printer 8.11.1. PrettyPrinter Objects 8.11.2. Example 8.12. reprlib — Alternate repr() implementation 8.12.1. Repr Objects 8.12.2. Subclassing Repr Objects 8.13. enum — Support for enumerations 8.13.1. Module Contents 8.13.2. Creating an Enum 8.13.3. Programmatic access to enumeration members and their attributes 8.13.4. Duplicating enum members and values 8.13.5. Ensuring unique enumeration values 8.13.6. Using automatic values 8.13.7. Iteration 8.13.8. Comparisons 8.13.9. Allowed members and attributes of enumerations 8.13.10. Restricted subclassing of enumerations 8.13.11. Pickling 8.13.12. Functional API 8.13.13. Derived Enumerations 8.13.13.1. IntEnum 8.13.13.2. IntFlag 8.13.13.3. Flag 8.13.13.4. Others 8.13.14. Interesting examples 8.13.14.1. Omitting values 8.13.14.1.1. Using auto 8.13.14.1.2. Using object 8.13.14.1.3. Using a descriptive string 8.13.14.1.4. Using a custom __new__() 8.13.14.2. OrderedEnum 8.13.14.3. DuplicateFreeEnum 8.13.14.4. Planet 8.13.15. How are Enums different? 8.13.15.1. Enum Classes 8.13.15.2. Enum Members (aka instances) 8.13.15.3. Finer Points 8.13.15.3.1. Supported __dunder__ names 8.13.15.3.2. Supported _sunder_ names 8.13.15.3.3. Enum member type 8.13.15.3.4. Boolean value of Enum classes and members 8.13.15.3.5. Enum classes with methods 8.13.15.3.6. Combining members of Flag 9. Numeric and Mathematical Modules 9.1. numbers — Numeric abstract base classes 9.1.1. The numeric tower 9.1.2. Notes for type implementors 9.1.2.1. Adding More Numeric ABCs 9.1.2.2. Implementing the arithmetic operations 9.2. math — Mathematical functions 9.2.1. Number-theoretic and representation functions 9.2.2. Power and logarithmic functions 9.2.3. Trigonometric functions 9.2.4. Angular conversion 9.2.5. Hyperbolic functions 9.2.6. Special functions 9.2.7. Constants 9.3. cmath — Mathematical functions for complex numbers 9.3.1. Conversions to and from polar coordinates 9.3.2. Power and logarithmic functions 9.3.3. Trigonometric functions 9.3.4. Hyperbolic functions 9.3.5. Classification functions 9.3.6. Constants 9.4. decimal — Decimal fixed point and floating point arithmetic 9.4.1. Quick-start Tutorial 9.4.2. Decimal objects 9.4.2.1. Logical operands 9.4.3. Context objects 9.4.4. Constants 9.4.5. Rounding modes 9.4.6. Signals 9.4.7. Floating Point Notes 9.4.7.1. Mitigating round-off error with increased precision 9.4.7.2. Special values 9.4.8. Working with threads 9.4.9. Recipes 9.4.10. Decimal FAQ 9.5. fractions — Rational numbers 9.6. random — Generate pseudo-random numbers 9.6.1. Bookkeeping functions 9.6.2. Functions for integers 9.6.3. Functions for sequences 9.6.4. Real-valued distributions 9.6.5. Alternative Generator 9.6.6. Notes on Reproducibility 9.6.7. Examples and Recipes 9.7. statistics — Mathematical statistics functions 9.7.1. Averages and measures of central location 9.7.2. Measures of spread 9.7.3. Function details 9.7.4. Exceptions 10. Functional Programming Modules 10.1. itertools — Functions creating iterators for efficient looping 10.1.1. Itertool functions 10.1.2. Itertools Recipes 10.2. functools — Higher-order functions and operations on callable objects 10.2.1. partial Objects 10.3. operator — Standard operators as functions 10.3.1. Mapping Operators to Functions 10.3.2. Inplace Operators 11. File and Directory Access 11.1. pathlib — Object-oriented filesystem paths 11.1.1. Basic use 11.1.2. Pure paths 11.1.2.1. General properties 11.1.2.2. Operators 11.1.2.3. Accessing individual parts 11.1.2.4. Methods and properties 11.1.3. Concrete paths 11.1.3.1. Methods 11.2. os.path — Common pathname manipulations 11.3. fileinput — Iterate over lines from multiple input streams 11.4. stat — Interpreting stat() results 11.5. filecmp — File and Directory Comparisons 11.5.1. The dircmp class 11.6. tempfile — Generate temporary files and directories 11.6.1. Examples 11.6.2. Deprecated functions and variables 11.7. glob — Unix style pathname pattern expansion 11.8. fnmatch — Unix filename pattern matching 11.9. linecache — Random access to text lines 11.10. shutil — High-level file operations 11.10.1. Directory and files operations 11.10.1.1. copytree example 11.10.1.2. rmtree example 11.10.2. Archiving operations 11.10.2.1. Archiving example 11.10.3. Querying the size of the output terminal 11.11. macpath — Mac OS 9 path manipulation functions 12. Data Persistence 12.1. pickle — Python object serialization 12.1.1. Relationship to other Python modules 12.1.1.1. Comparison with marshal 12.1.1.2. Comparison with json 12.1.2. Data stream format 12.1.3. Module Interface 12.1.4. What can be pickled and unpickled? 12.1.5. Pickling Class Instances 12.1.5.1. Persistence of External Objects 12.1.5.2. Dispatch Tables 12.1.5.3. Handling Stateful Objects 12.1.6. Restricting Globals 12.1.7. Performance 12.1.8. Examples 12.2. copyreg — Register pickle support functions 12.2.1. Example 12.3. shelve — Python object persistence 12.3.1. Restrictions 12.3.2. Example 12.4. marshal — Internal Python object serialization 12.5. dbm — Interfaces to Unix “databases” 12.5.1. dbm.gnu — GNU’s reinterpretation of dbm 12.5.2. dbm.ndbm — Interface based on ndbm 12.5.3. dbm.dumb — Portable DBM implementation 12.6. sqlite3 — DB-API 2.0 interface for SQLite databases 12.6.1. Module functions and constants 12.6.2. Connection Objects 12.6.3. Cursor Objects 12.6.4. Row Objects 12.6.5. Exceptions 12.6.6. SQLite and Python types 12.6.6.1. Introduction 12.6.6.2. Using adapters to store additional Python types in SQLite databases 12.6.6.2.1. Letting your object adapt itself 12.6.6.2.2. Registering an adapter callable 12.6.6.3. Converting SQLite values to custom Python types 12.6.6.4. Default adapters and converters 12.6.7. Controlling Transactions 12.6.8. Using sqlite3 efficiently 12.6.8.1. Using shortcut methods 12.6.8.2. Accessing columns by name instead of by index 12.6.8.3. Using the connection as a context manager 12.6.9. Common issues 12.6.9.1. Multithreading 13. Data Compression and Archiving 13.1. zlib — Compression compatible with gzip 13.2. gzip — Support for gzip files 13.2.1. Examples of usage 13.3. bz2 — Support for bzip2 compression 13.3.1. (De)compression of files 13.3.2. Incremental (de)compression 13.3.3. One-shot (de)compression 13.4. lzma — Compression using the LZMA algorithm 13.4.1. Reading and writing compressed files 13.4.2. Compressing and decompressing data in memory 13.4.3. Miscellaneous 13.4.4. Specifying custom filter chains 13.4.5. Examples 13.5. zipfile — Work with ZIP archives 13.5.1. ZipFile Objects 13.5.2. PyZipFile Objects 13.5.3. ZipInfo Objects 13.5.4. Command-Line Interface 13.5.4.1. Command-line options 13.6. tarfile — Read and write tar archive files 13.6.1. TarFile Objects 13.6.2. TarInfo Objects 13.6.3. Command-Line Interface 13.6.3.1. Command-line options 13.6.4. Examples 13.6.5. Supported tar formats 13.6.6. Unicode issues 14. File Formats 14.1. csv — CSV File Reading and Writing 14.1.1. Module Contents 14.1.2. Dialects and Formatting Parameters 14.1.3. Reader Objects 14.1.4. Writer Objects 14.1.5. Examples 14.2. configparser — Configuration file parser 14.2.1. Quick Start 14.2.2. Supported Datatypes 14.2.3. Fallback Values 14.2.4. Supported INI File Structure 14.2.5. Interpolation of values 14.2.6. Mapping Protocol Access 14.2.7. Customizing Parser Behaviour 14.2.8. Legacy API Examples 14.2.9. ConfigParser Objects 14.2.10. RawConfigParser Objects 14.2.11. Exceptions 14.3. netrc — netrc file processing 14.3.1. netrc Objects 14.4. xdrlib — Encode and decode XDR data 14.4.1. Packer Objects 14.4.2. Unpacker Objects 14.4.3. Exceptions 14.5. plistlib — Generate and parse Mac OS X .plist files 14.5.1. Examples 15. Cryptographic Services 15.1. hashlib — Secure hashes and message digests 15.1.1. Hash algorithms 15.1.2. SHAKE variable length digests 15.1.3. Key derivation 15.1.4. BLAKE2 15.1.4.1. Creating hash objects 15.1.4.2. Constants 15.1.4.3. Examples 15.1.4.3.1. Simple hashing 15.1.4.3.2. Using different digest sizes 15.1.4.3.3. Keyed hashing 15.1.4.3.4. Randomized hashing 15.1.4.3.5. Personalization 15.1.4.3.6. Tree mode 15.1.4.4. Credits 15.2. hmac — Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication 15.3. secrets — Generate secure random numbers for managing secrets 15.3.1. Random numbers 15.3.2. Generating tokens 15.3.2.1. How many bytes should tokens use? 15.3.3. Other functions 15.3.4. Recipes and best practices 16. Generic Operating System Services 16.1. os — Miscellaneous operating system interfaces 16.1.1. File Names, Command Line Arguments, and Environment Variables 16.1.2. Process Parameters 16.1.3. File Object Creation 16.1.4. File Descriptor Operations 16.1.4.1. Querying the size of a terminal 16.1.4.2. Inheritance of File Descriptors 16.1.5. Files and Directories 16.1.5.1. Linux extended attributes 16.1.6. Process Management 16.1.7. Interface to the scheduler 16.1.8. Miscellaneous System Information 16.1.9. Random numbers 16.2. io — Core tools for working with streams 16.2.1. Overview 16.2.1.1. Text I/O 16.2.1.2. Binary I/O 16.2.1.3. Raw I/O 16.2.2. High-level Module Interface 16.2.2.1. In-memory streams 16.2.3. Class hierarchy 16.2.3.1. I/O Base Classes 16.2.3.2. Raw File I/O 16.2.3.3. Buffered Streams 16.2.3.4. Text I/O 16.2.4. Performance 16.2.4.1. Binary I/O 16.2.4.2. Text I/O 16.2.4.3. Multi-threading 16.2.4.4. Reentrancy 16.3. time — Time access and conversions 16.3.1. Functions 16.3.2. Clock ID Constants 16.3.3. Timezone Constants 16.4. argparse — Parser for command-line options, arguments and sub-commands 16.4.1. Example 16.4.1.1. Creating a parser 16.4.1.2. Adding arguments 16.4.1.3. Parsing arguments 16.4.2. ArgumentParser objects 16.4.2.1. prog 16.4.2.2. usage 16.4.2.3. description 16.4.2.4. epilog 16.4.2.5. parents 16.4.2.6. formatter_class 16.4.2.7. prefix_chars 16.4.2.8. fromfile_prefix_chars 16.4.2.9. argument_default 16.4.2.10. allow_abbrev 16.4.2.11. conflict_handler 16.4.2.12. add_help 16.4.3. The add_argument() method 16.4.3.1. name or flags 16.4.3.2. action 16.4.3.3. nargs 16.4.3.4. const 16.4.3.5. default 16.4.3.6. type 16.4.3.7. choices 16.4.3.8. required 16.4.3.9. help 16.4.3.10. metavar 16.4.3.11. dest 16.4.3.12. Action classes 16.4.4. The parse_args() method 16.4.4.1. Option value syntax 16.4.4.2. Invalid arguments 16.4.4.3. Arguments containing - 16.4.4.4. Argument abbreviations (prefix matching) 16.4.4.5. Beyond sys.argv 16.4.4.6. The Namespace object 16.4.5. Other utilities 16.4.5.1. Sub-commands 16.4.5.2. FileType objects 16.4.5.3. Argument groups 16.4.5.4. Mutual exclusion 16.4.5.5. Parser defaults 16.4.5.6. Printing help 16.4.5.7. Partial parsing 16.4.5.8. Customizing file parsing 16.4.5.9. Exiting methods 16.4.6. Upgrading optparse code 16.5. getopt — C-style parser for command line options 16.6. logging — Logging facility for Python 16.6.1. Logger Objects 16.6.2. Logging Levels 16.6.3. Handler Objects 16.6.4. Formatter Objects 16.6.5. Filter Objects 16.6.6. LogRecord Objects 16.6.7. LogRecord attributes 16.6.8. LoggerAdapter Objects 16.6.9. Thread Safety 16.6.10. Module-Level Functions 16.6.11. Module-Level Attributes 16.6.12. Integration with the warnings module 16.7. logging.config — Logging configuration 16.7.1. Configuration functions 16.7.2. Configuration dictionary schema 16.7.2.1. Dictionary Schema Details 16.7.2.2. Incremental Configuration 16.7.2.3. Object connections 16.7.2.4. User-defined objects 16.7.2.5. Access to external objects 16.7.2.6. Access to internal objects 16.7.2.7. Import resolution and custom importers 16.7.3. Configuration file format 16.8. logging.handlers — Logging handlers 16.8.1. StreamHandler 16.8.2. FileHandler 16.8.3. NullHandler 16.8.4. WatchedFileHandler 16.8.5. BaseRotatingHandler 16.8.6. RotatingFileHandler 16.8.7. TimedRotatingFileHandler 16.8.8. SocketHandler 16.8.9. DatagramHandler 16.8.10. SysLogHandler 16.8.11. NTEventLogHandler 16.8.12. SMTPHandler 16.8.13. MemoryHandler 16.8.14. HTTPHandler 16.8.15. QueueHandler 16.8.16. QueueListener 16.9. getpass — Portable password input 16.10. curses — Terminal handling for character-cell displays 16.10.1. Functions 16.10.2. Window Objects 16.10.3. Constants 16.11. curses.textpad — Text input widget for curses programs 16.11.1. Textbox objects 16.12. curses.ascii — Utilities for ASCII characters 16.13. curses.panel — A panel stack extension for curses 16.13.1. Functions 16.13.2. Panel Objects 16.14. platform — Access to underlying platform’s identifying data 16.14.1. Cross Platform 16.14.2. Java Platform 16.14.3. Windows Platform 16.14.3.1. Win95/98 specific 16.14.4. Mac OS Platform 16.14.5. Unix Platforms 16.15. errno — Standard errno system symbols 16.16. ctypes — A foreign function library for Python 16.16.1. ctypes tutorial 16.16.1.1. Loading dynamic link libraries 16.16.1.2. Accessing functions from loaded dlls 16.16.1.3. Calling functions 16.16.1.4. Fundamental data types 16.16.1.5. Calling functions, continued 16.16.1.6. Calling functions with your own custom data types 16.16.1.7. Specifying the required argument types (function prototypes) 16.16.1.8. Return types 16.16.1.9. Passing pointers (or: passing parameters by reference) 16.16.1.10. Structures and unions 16.16.1.11. Structure/union alignment and byte order 16.16.1.12. Bit fields in structures and unions 16.16.1.13. Arrays 16.16.1.14. Pointers 16.16.1.15. Type conversions 16.16.1.16. Incomplete Types 16.16.1.17. Callback functions 16.16.1.18. Accessing values exported from dlls 16.16.1.19. Surprises 16.16.1.20. Variable-sized data types 16.16.2. ctypes reference 16.16.2.1. Finding shared libraries 16.16.2.2. Loading shared libraries 16.16.2.3. Foreign functions 16.16.2.4. Function prototypes 16.16.2.5. Utility functions 16.16.2.6. Data types 16.16.2.7. Fundamental data types 16.16.2.8. Structured data types 16.16.2.9. Arrays and pointers 17. Concurrent Execution 17.1. threading — Thread-based parallelism 17.1.1. Thread-Local Data 17.1.2. Thread Objects 17.1.3. Lock Objects 17.1.4. RLock Objects 17.1.5. Condition Objects 17.1.6. Semaphore Objects 17.1.6.1. Semaphore Example 17.1.7. Event Objects 17.1.8. Timer Objects 17.1.9. Barrier Objects 17.1.10. Using locks, conditions, and semaphores in the with statement 17.2. multiprocessing — Process-based parallelism 17.2.1. Introduction 17.2.1.1. The Process class 17.2.1.2. Contexts and start methods 17.2.1.3. Exchanging objects between processes 17.2.1.4. Synchronization between processes 17.2.1.5. Sharing state between processes 17.2.1.6. Using a pool of workers 17.2.2. Reference 17.2.2.1. Process and exceptions 17.2.2.2. Pipes and Queues 17.2.2.3. Miscellaneous 17.2.2.4. Connection Objects 17.2.2.5. Synchronization primitives 17.2.2.6. Shared ctypes Objects 17.2.2.6.1. The multiprocessing.sharedctypes module 17.2.2.7. Managers 17.2.2.7.1. Customized managers 17.2.2.7.2. Using a remote manager 17.2.2.8. Proxy Objects 17.2.2.8.1. Cleanup 17.2.2.9. Process Pools 17.2.2.10. Listeners and Clients 17.2.2.10.1. Address Formats 17.2.2.11. Authentication keys 17.2.2.12. Logging 17.2.2.13. The multiprocessing.dummy module 17.2.3. Programming guidelines 17.2.3.1. All start methods 17.2.3.2. The spawn and forkserver start methods 17.2.4. Examples 17.3. The concurrent package 17.4. concurrent.futures — Launching parallel tasks 17.4.1. Executor Objects 17.4.2. ThreadPoolExecutor 17.4.2.1. ThreadPoolExecutor Example 17.4.3. ProcessPoolExecutor 17.4.3.1. ProcessPoolExecutor Example 17.4.4. Future Objects 17.4.5. Module Functions 17.4.6. Exception classes 17.5. subprocess — Subprocess management 17.5.1. Using the subprocess Module 17.5.1.1. Frequently Used Arguments 17.5.1.2. Popen Constructor 17.5.1.3. Exceptions 17.5.2. Security Considerations 17.5.3. Popen Objects 17.5.4. Windows Popen Helpers 17.5.4.1. Constants 17.5.5. Older high-level API 17.5.6. Replacing Older Functions with the subprocess Module 17.5.6.1. Replacing /bin/sh shell backquote 17.5.6.2. Replacing shell pipeline 17.5.6.3. Replacing os.system() 17.5.6.4. Replacing the os.spawn family 17.5.6.5. Replacing os.popen(), os.popen2(), os.popen3() 17.5.6.6. Replacing functions from the popen2 module 17.5.7. Legacy Shell Invocation Functions 17.5.8. Notes 17.5.8.1. Converting an argument sequence to a string on Windows 17.6. sched — Event scheduler 17.6.1. Scheduler Objects 17.7. queue — A synchronized queue class 17.7.1. Queue Objects 17.8. dummy_threading — Drop-in replacement for the threading module 17.9. _thread — Low-level threading API 17.10. _dummy_thread — Drop-in replacement for the _thread module 18. Interprocess Communication and Networking 18.1. socket — Low-level networking interface 18.1.1. Socket families 18.1.2. Module contents 18.1.2.1. Exceptions 18.1.2.2. Constants 18.1.2.3. Functions 18.1.2.3.1. Creating sockets 18.1.2.3.2. Other functions 18.1.3. Socket Objects 18.1.4. Notes on socket timeouts 18.1.4.1. Timeouts and the connect method 18.1.4.2. Timeouts and the accept method 18.1.5. Example 18.2. ssl — TLS/SSL wrapper for socket objects 18.2.1. Functions, Constants, and Exceptions 18.2.1.1. Socket creation 18.2.1.2. Context creation 18.2.1.3. Random generation 18.2.1.4. Certificate handling 18.2.1.5. Constants 18.2.2. SSL Sockets 18.2.3. SSL Contexts 18.2.4. Certificates 18.2.4.1. Certificate chains 18.2.4.2. CA certificates 18.2.4.3. Combined key and certificate 18.2.4.4. Self-signed certificates 18.2.5. Examples 18.2.5.1. Testing for SSL support 18.2.5.2. Client-side operation 18.2.5.3. Server-side operation 18.2.6. Notes on non-blocking sockets 18.2.7. Memory BIO Support 18.2.8. SSL session 18.2.9. Security considerations 18.2.9.1. Best defaults 18.2.9.2. Manual settings 18.2.9.2.1. Verifying certificates 18.2.9.2.2. Protocol versions 18.2.9.2.3. Cipher selection 18.2.9.3. Multi-processing 18.2.10. LibreSSL support 18.3. select — Waiting for I/O completion 18.3.1. /dev/poll Polling Objects 18.3.2. Edge and Level Trigger Polling (epoll) Objects 18.3.3. Polling Objects 18.3.4. Kqueue Objects 18.3.5. Kevent Objects 18.4. selectors — High-level I/O multiplexing 18.4.1. Introduction 18.4.2. Classes 18.4.3. Examples 18.5. asyncio — Asynchronous I/O, event loop, coroutines and tasks 18.5.1. Base Event Loop 18.5.1.1. Run an event loop 18.5.1.2. Calls 18.5.1.3. Delayed calls 18.5.1.4. Futures 18.5.1.5. Tasks 18.5.1.6. Creating connections 18.5.1.7. Creating listening connections 18.5.1.8. Watch file descriptors 18.5.1.9. Low-level socket operations 18.5.1.10. Resolve host name 18.5.1.11. Connect pipes 18.5.1.12. UNIX signals 18.5.1.13. Executor 18.5.1.14. Error Handling API 18.5.1.15. Debug mode 18.5.1.16. Server 18.5.1.17. Handle 18.5.1.18. Event loop examples 18.5.1.18.1. Hello World with call_soon() 18.5.1.18.2. Display the current date with call_later() 18.5.1.18.3. Watch a file descriptor for read events 18.5.1.18.4. Set signal handlers for SIGINT and SIGTERM 18.5.2. Event loops 18.5.2.1. Event loop functions 18.5.2.2. Available event loops 18.5.2.3. Platform support 18.5.2.3.1. Windows 18.5.2.3.2. Mac OS X 18.5.2.4. Event loop policies and the default policy 18.5.2.5. Event loop policy interface 18.5.2.6. Access to the global loop policy 18.5.2.7. Customizing the event loop policy 18.5.3. Tasks and coroutines 18.5.3.1. Coroutines 18.5.3.1.1. Example: Hello World coroutine 18.5.3.1.2. Example: Coroutine displaying the current date 18.5.3.1.3. Example: Chain coroutines 18.5.3.2. InvalidStateError 18.5.3.3. TimeoutError 18.5.3.4. Future 18.5.3.4.1. Example: Future with run_until_complete() 18.5.3.4.2. Example: Future with run_forever() 18.5.3.5. Task 18.5.3.5.1. Example: Parallel execution of tasks 18.5.3.6. Task functions 18.5.4. Transports and protocols (callback based API) 18.5.4.1. Transports 18.5.4.1.1. BaseTransport 18.5.4.1.2. ReadTransport 18.5.4.1.3. WriteTransport 18.5.4.1.4. DatagramTransport 18.5.4.1.5. BaseSubprocessTransport 18.5.4.2. Protocols 18.5.4.2.1. Protocol classes 18.5.4.2.2. Connection callbacks 18.5.4.2.3. Streaming protocols 18.5.4.2.4. Datagram protocols 18.5.4.2.5. Flow control callbacks 18.5.4.2.6. Coroutines and protocols 18.5.4.3. Protocol examples 18.5.4.3.1. TCP echo client protocol 18.5.4.3.2. TCP echo server protocol 18.5.4.3.3. UDP echo client protocol 18.5.4.3.4. UDP echo server protocol 18.5.4.3.5. Register an open socket to wait for data using a protocol 18.5.5. Streams (coroutine based API) 18.5.5.1. Stream functions 18.5.5.2. StreamReader 18.5.5.3. StreamWriter 18.5.5.4. StreamReaderProtocol 18.5.5.5. IncompleteReadError 18.5.5.6. LimitOverrunError 18.5.5.7. Stream examples 18.5.5.7.1. TCP echo client using streams 18.5.5.7.2. TCP echo server using streams 18.5.5.7.3. Get HTTP headers 18.5.5.7.4. Register an open socket to wait for data using streams 18.5.6. Subprocess 18.5.6.1. Windows event loop 18.5.6.2. Create a subprocess: high-level API using Process 18.5.6.3. Create a subprocess: low-level API using subprocess.Popen 18.5.6.4. Constants 18.5.6.5. Process 18.5.6.6. Subprocess and threads 18.5.6.7. Subprocess examples 18.5.6.7.1. Subprocess using transport and protocol 18.5.6.7.2. Subprocess using streams 18.5.7. Synchronization primitives 18.5.7.1. Locks 18.5.7.1.1. Lock 18.5.7.1.2. Event 18.5.7.1.3. Condition 18.5.7.2. Semaphores 18.5.7.2.1. Semaphore 18.5.7.2.2. BoundedSemaphore 18.5.8. Queues 18.5.8.1. Queue 18.5.8.2. PriorityQueue 18.5.8.3. LifoQueue 18.5.8.3.1. Exceptions 18.5.9. Develop with asyncio 18.5.9.1. Debug mode of asyncio 18.5.9.2. Cancellation 18.5.9.3. Concurrency and multithreading 18.5.9.4. Handle blocking functions correctly 18.5.9.5. Logging 18.5.9.6. Detect coroutine objects never scheduled 18.5.9.7. Detect exceptions never consumed 18.5.9.8. Chain coroutines correctly 18.5.9.9. Pending task destroyed 18.5.9.10. Close transports and event loops 18.6. asyncore — Asynchronous socket handler 18.6.1. asyncore Example basic HTTP client 18.6.2. asyncore Example basic echo server 18.7. asynchat — Asynchronous socket command/response handler 18.7.1. asynchat Example 18.8. signal — Set handlers for asynchronous events 18.8.1. General rules 18.8.1.1. Execution of Python signal handlers 18.8.1.2. Signals and threads 18.8.2. Module contents 18.8.3. Example 18.9. mmap — Memory-mapped file support 19. Internet Data Handling 19.1. email — An email and MIME handling package 19.1.1. email.message: Representing an email message 19.1.2. email.parser: Parsing email messages 19.1.2.1. FeedParser API 19.1.2.2. Parser API 19.1.2.3. Additional notes 19.1.3. email.generator: Generating MIME documents 19.1.4. email.policy: Policy Objects 19.1.5. email.errors: Exception and Defect classes 19.1.6. email.headerregistry: Custom Header Objects 19.1.7. email.contentmanager: Managing MIME Content 19.1.7.1. 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NamedNodeMap Objects 20.6.2.9. Comment Objects 20.6.2.10. Text and CDATASection Objects 20.6.2.11. ProcessingInstruction Objects 20.6.2.12. Exceptions 20.6.3. Conformance 20.6.3.1. Type Mapping 20.6.3.2. Accessor Methods 20.7. xml.dom.minidom — Minimal DOM implementation 20.7.1. DOM Objects 20.7.2. DOM Example 20.7.3. minidom and the DOM standard 20.8. xml.dom.pulldom — Support for building partial DOM trees 20.8.1. DOMEventStream Objects 20.9. xml.sax — Support for SAX2 parsers 20.9.1. SAXException Objects 20.10. xml.sax.handler — Base classes for SAX handlers 20.10.1. ContentHandler Objects 20.10.2. DTDHandler Objects 20.10.3. EntityResolver Objects 20.10.4. ErrorHandler Objects 20.11. xml.sax.saxutils — SAX Utilities 20.12. xml.sax.xmlreader — Interface for XML parsers 20.12.1. XMLReader Objects 20.12.2. IncrementalParser Objects 20.12.3. Locator Objects 20.12.4. InputSource Objects 20.12.5. The Attributes Interface 20.12.6. 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Common problems and solutions 21.3. cgitb — Traceback manager for CGI scripts 21.4. wsgiref — WSGI Utilities and Reference Implementation 21.4.1. wsgiref.util – WSGI environment utilities 21.4.2. wsgiref.headers – WSGI response header tools 21.4.3. wsgiref.simple_server – a simple WSGI HTTP server 21.4.4. wsgiref.validate — WSGI conformance checker 21.4.5. wsgiref.handlers – server/gateway base classes 21.4.6. Examples 21.5. urllib — URL handling modules 21.6. urllib.request — Extensible library for opening URLs 21.6.1. Request Objects 21.6.2. OpenerDirector Objects 21.6.3. BaseHandler Objects 21.6.4. HTTPRedirectHandler Objects 21.6.5. HTTPCookieProcessor Objects 21.6.6. ProxyHandler Objects 21.6.7. HTTPPasswordMgr Objects 21.6.8. HTTPPasswordMgrWithPriorAuth Objects 21.6.9. AbstractBasicAuthHandler Objects 21.6.10. HTTPBasicAuthHandler Objects 21.6.11. ProxyBasicAuthHandler Objects 21.6.12. AbstractDigestAuthHandler Objects 21.6.13. HTTPDigestAuthHandler Objects 21.6.14. 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