Merriam-Webster's+Vocabulary+Builder+-+Merriam-Webster.pdf

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Merriam-Webster's+Vocabulary+Builder+-+Merriam-Webster.pdf
A GENUINE MERRIAM-WEBSTER The name Webster alone is no guarantee of excellence. It is used by a number of publishers and may serve mainly to mislead an unwary buyer Merriam-WebsterTM is the name you should look for when you consider the purchase of dictionaries or other fine reference books. It carries the reputation of a company that has been publishing since 1831 and is your assurance of quality and authority Copyright o 2010 by Merriam-Webster, Incorporated Merriam-Websters Vocabulary Builder, Second edition sBN978-0-87779795-1 All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyrights hereon may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means-graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems--without written permission of the publisher. → Copyright → Introduction →→ Pronunciation Symbols →Unit1 →Unit2 Unit 3 →Unit4 →Unit5 →Unit6 →Unit Unit 78 →Untg →Unit10 →Unit11 →Unit12 →Unit13 →Unit14 →Unit15 →Unit16 →Unit17 →Unit18 →Unit19 Unit 2 →Unit21 →Unit →Unit23 →Unit24 →Unit25 →Unit26 →Unit27 →Unit28 →Unit29 →Unt30 → Answers → Index INTRODUCTION to the second edition Merriam-Webster's Vocabulary Builder is designed to achieve two goals: (1)to add a large number of words to your permanent working vocabulary, and(2)to teach the most useful of the classical word-building roots to help you continue expanding your vocabulary in the future To achieve these goals, Merriam-Webster's Vocabulary Builder employs an original approach that takes into account how people learn and remember. Some vocabulary builders simply present their words in alphabetical order; some provide little or no discussion of the words and how to use them and a few even fail to show the kinds of sentences in which the words usually appear. But memorizing a series of random and unrelated things can be difficult and time-consuming. The fact is that we tend to remember words easily and naturally when they appear in some meaningful context, when they've been shown to be useful and therefore worth remembering, and when they've been properly explained to us. Knowing precisely how to use a word is just as important as knowing what it means Greek and Latin have been the sources of most of the words in the english language(the third principal source being the family of Germanic languages). All these words were added to the language long after the fall of the roman empire, and more continue to be added to this day, with most new words--especially those in the sciences-still making use of Greek and Latin roots. a knowledge of Greek and Latin roots will not only help you remember the meanings of the words in this book but will help you guess at the meanings of new words that you run into elsewhere. Remember what a root means and you'l have at least a fighting chance of understanding a word in which it appears The roots in this book are only a fraction of those that exist, but they include almost all the roots that have produced the largest number of common English words. All these roots (sometimes called stems) formed parts of Greek and Latin words. Some are shown in more than one form (for example, CRAC/CRAT), which means that they changed form in the original language, just as buy and bought are forms of the same English word Each of the more than 250 roots in this book is followed by four words based on the root Each group of eight words(two roots)is followed by two quizzes. Every fifth group of words is a special eight-word section which may contain words based on classical mythology or history, words borrowed directly from Greek or Latin, or other special categories of terms. Each set of 40 words makes up a unit. Thus, the 30 units in the book discuss in detail a total of 1, 200 words In addition, the brief paragraphs discussing each word include in italics many words closely related to the main words. So mastering a single word (for example, compel) can increase your vocabulary by several words(in this case, compelling, compulsion, and compulsive The words presented here aren 't all on the same level of difficulty-some are quite simple and some are truly challenging-but the great majority are words that could be encountered on the sat and similar standardized tests most of them are in the vocabularies of well-educated Americans, including professionals such as scientists, lawyers, professors, and doctors. Even the words you feel familiar with may only have a place in your recognition vocabulary-that is the words you recognize when you see or hear them but don't actually use in your own speech and writing Each main word is followed by its most common pronunciation Any pronunciation symbols unfamiliar to you can be learned easily by referring to the Pronunciation Symbols table on page The definition comes next. Weve tried to provide only the most common senses or meanings of each word, in simple and straightforward language, and no more than two definitions of any word are given. (A more complete range of definitions can be found in a college dictionary such as Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary An example sentence marked with a bullet ()follows the definition This sentence by itself can indicate a great deal about the word, including the kind of sentence in which it often appears. It can also serve as a memory aid; when you meet the word in the future, you may recall the example sentence more easily than the definition An explanatory paragraph rounds out each entry. The paragraph may do a number of things: It may tell you what else you need to know in order to use the word intelligently and correctly, when the definition and example sentence aren't enough. It may tell you more about the word's roots and its history. It may discuss additional meanings or provide additional example sentences. It may demonstrate the use of closely related words. And it may provide an informative or entertaining glimpse into a subject related to the word. The intention is to make you as comfortable as possible with each word in turn and to enable you to start using it immediately, without fear of embarrassment The quizzes following each eight-word group, along with the review quizzes at the end of each unit, will test your memory. Many of them ask you to fill in a blank in a sentence. Others require you to identify synonyms (words with the same or very similar meaning) or antonyms (words with the opposite meaning ). Perhaps most difficult are the analogies, which ask that you choose the word that will make the relationship between the last two words the same as the relationship between the first two. Thus, you may be asked to complete the analogy "calculate count: : expend (which can be read as"Calculate is to count as expend is to")by choosing one of four words: stretch, speculate, pay, and explode. Since calculate and count are nearly synonyms, you will choose a near synonym for expend, so the correct answer is pay Studies have shown that the only way a new word will remain alive in your vocabulary is if it's regularly reinforced through use and through reading. Learn the word here and look and listen for it elsewhere; you 'll probably find yourself running into it frequently, just as when you've bought a new car you soon realize how many other people own the same model Carry this book in your shoulder bag or leave it on your night table. Whenever you find yourself with a few minutes to spare, open it to the beginning of a brief root group. (There's no real need to read the units in any particular order, since each unit is entirely self-contained However, studying the book straight through from the beginning will ensure that you make maximum use of it Pick a single word or a four-word group or an eight-word section; study it, test yourself, and then try making up new sentences for each word. Be sure to pronounce every new word aloud at least once along with its definition Start using the words immediately. As soon as you feel confident with a word, start trying to work it into your writing wherever appropriate-your papers and reports, your diary and your poetry. An old saying goes, "Use it three times and it's yours. That may be, but don't stop at three. Make the words part of your working vocabulary the words that you can not only recognize when you see or hear them but that you can comfortably call on whenever you need them Astonish your friends, amaze your relatives, astound yourself (while trying not to be too much of a show-off-and have fun! Acknowedgments: The first edition of this book, written by mary Wood Cornog, also benefited from the contributions of numerous members of the Merriam-Webster staff, including Michael G Belanger, Brett P. Palmer, Stephen J. Perrault, and Mark A. Stevens. This new edition was edited by Mark A. Stevens, with assistance from C. Roger Davis and with the support and encouragement of merriam-Webster 's president and publisher John M. morse Pronunciation Symbols e banana, collide, abut 3, e humdrum, abut a immediately preceding/I, /n/, /m/, /n/, as in battle, mitten, eaten, and sometimes open/o-p m/, lock and key/-n_ er further, merger bird amat, map, mad, gag, snap, patch a day, fade, date, aorta, drape, cape bother, cot r car, heart, bazaar, bizarre au now, loud, ou baby rib ch chin, nature/'nachar/ did. adder e bet, bed, peck ler bare, fair, wear, millionaire easy, mealy fifty, cuff go, big, gift h hat, ahead Itp, banish, active Ir near, deer, mere, pIer i site, side, buy, tripe job, gem, edge, join, judge Ikkin,cook,ache 卩,pool murmur, dim, nymph no. own Ising/'sin/, singer/'si,. er/, finger/fin. gar/, ink/ink/ bone, know, beau saw, all, gnaw, caught ol coin, destroy or boar, port door, shore pepper, Ii r, lip red,rarity source, less sh as in shy, mission, machine, special It tie, attack, late, later, latter th as in thin, ether ththen, either, this lu rule, youth, union/yun. en/, few/tyW pull, wood, book ur boor, tour, insure ⅣMWd,gve w we, away y yard, young, cue/kyu/, mute/'myut, union/yun-yan zone, raise zh as in vision, azure/a_zhar/ slash used in pairs to mark the beginning and end of a transcription /pen/ mark preceding a syllable with primary(strongest)stress: /'pen_-ship/ mark preceding a syllable with secondary(medium )stress: /'pen-manship/ mark of syllable division Unit 1 BENE AM BELL PAC CRIM PROB GRAVLEVWords from Mythology and History Quiz 1-1 Quiz 1-2 Quiz 1-3 Quiz 1-4 Quiz 1-5 Review Quizzes 1 BENE is Latin for "well. "a benefit is a good result or effect. Something beneficial produces good results or effects. The Latin root can be heard in other languages as well: Good! " or Fine! " in Spanish is"Bueno!"; in French, it's "Bon! and in Italian, just say"Bene benediction/be_nedik-shen/ a prayer that asks for God's blessing, especially a prayer that concludes a worship service The moment the bishop had finished his benediction, she squeezed quickly out of her row and darted out the cathedrals side entrance In benediction, the bene root is joined by another Latin root, dictio, "speaking"(see DICT),so the word's meaning becomes something like well-wishing. Perhaps the best-known benediction is the so-called Aaronic Benediction from the Bible, which begins, May the Lord bless you and keep you. "An important section of the Catholic Mass was traditionally known as the Benedictus, after its first word(meaning"blessed"). It was St Benedict who organized the first Christian monasteries; many Christians have been baptized Benedict in his honor, and 16 popes have taken it as their papal name

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