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Author(s): Graham T. Smith (auth.) Language: English Pages: 443
Graham t. Smith CNC Machining Technology With 204 Figures Springer-Verlag London Berlin Heidelberg New York Paris Tokyo Hong Kong Barcelona Budapest Graham T. Smith Technology research Centre, Southampton Institute City Campus, East Park Terrace, Southampton So9 4WW, UK Cover illustration: Ch 5, Fig. 36. The complete machining of an impeller, b utilisation of a 5-axis horizontal machining centre in conjunction with a hig ch-level programming language. Courtesy of Scharmann Machine Ltd. I ISBN-13:978-3-540-19586-3 e-ISBN-13:978-1-4471-1748-3 DOI:10.1007/978-1-4471-1748-3 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Smith, graham T CNC Machining: Handbook of Turning and Machining Centres I. Title 621.9 ISBN-13:978-3-540-19586-3 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Smith, graham T, 1947- CNC machining: the handbook on turning and machining centres Graham T. Smith Includes bibliographical references (p. )and index IsBN 0-387-19586-6(alk. paper: U.S 1. Machine-tools-Numerical control--Handbooks, manuals, etc Ⅰ. Title 叮1189.5591992 92-27175 6219023—dc20 CIP Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be reproduced stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers C Springer-Verlag London Limited 1993 The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made. Typeset by Best-set Typesetter Ltd. Hong Kong 69 /3830-543210 Printed on acid-free paper To my grandfather Mr tw chandler wno encouraged me to take an interest in all things ∑OΦO∑ ANHP O EE AIA∑ TNEIPA2 A1MA2KOMENOZ ∑OΦ OTATOE AE O EK THE TON AAM22N Translation A wise man learns from experience and an even n from the experience of others PLATo 428-348 BC Contents Preface Acknowledgements 1 The Development and design of CNc Machine 1.1 Historical Perspective-the Early Development of Numerically controlled Machine tools 1.2 The Economics of cnc 3 1.3 The Design and Construction of CNC Machine Tools 1.4 Principles of Control 32 1.5 Measuring Systems for Machine Tool Path Determination 43 1.6 A Review of Typical CNC Machine Tool Configurations 2 Cutting Tool Technology 65 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Tooling-the Key to Prompt, Productive Operations.. 65 2.3 Basic Guidance in Determining a Toolings Set-up 66 2.4 Cutting Tool materials 67 2.5 Insert Cutting Tool Geometries and their Selection.. 77 2.6 Cutting Tool Diversity-a Review 2.7 Modular Quick-change Tooling 97 2.8 Tool and Workpiece monitoring Systems 2.9 Tool Management 120 3 Cutting Fluids 131 3.1 Introduction 131 3.2 Stock Removal Processes 131 VIll Contents 3.3 Types of Cutting Fluids 140 3.4 Choosing the Right Cutting Fluid 151 3.5 Handling and Use of Cutting Fluids 153 4 Workholding g Technolo 161 4.1 Introduction 161 4.2 Turning Centre workholding techniques 164 4. 3 Advanced Workholding Methods on Turning 4.4 Programmable Steadies-their role in Workholding . 182 Workpiece Delivery to"Stand-alone"Turning Centres 4.6 Part-catchers 4.7 Machining Centre Workholding Techniques 187 4.8 Workpiece Delivery Systems to Turning and Machining Centres 206 4.9 Computerised Workholding Techniques-the Philosophy behind the applications 5 CNC Controllers and Programming Techniques 217 5.1 Introduction 217 5.2 CNC Controllers-a Review 219 5.3 The Sequence Used to Generate Part Programs 221 5.4 The Fundamentals of CNC Programming 24 5.5 High-speed Milling Fundamentals 292 5.6 High-speed Turning Operati 297 5.7 Reverse Engineering-an Overview of Digitising on Centres 5.8 Computer-aided Design and manufacture 305 6 Current Developments in Flexible Manufacturing Cells and Systems, Leading to Complete Computer Integrated Manufacture 317 6.1 Introduction 317 6.2 The Importance of"Logistics"in a Flexible Manufacturing Environment, its Feasibility and Simulation during the Devele 318 6.3 Flexible Manufacturing Cell and System Configurations 332 6.4 Condition Monitoring of Untended Plant: FMC/S and CIM Installations .349 6.5 The monitoring Systems necessary for High Part Quality during U d machinin 352 6.6 Automated Auxiliary Equipment Necessary to Ensure Accurate Quality Assurance in an FMC/S Facility... 360 6.7 Computer Integrated Manufacture(CIM)in the Automated Factory-a Case Study 362 6.8 Present and Future Trends in Turning and Machining Centre Development 375 IX Appendix National and International Machine Tool Stand 393 Glossary of Terms Selected Bibliography 417 Company Addresses 419 Indo 427 Preface This book has been written as a result of the favourable com ments made about its companion volume over the years advanced Machining- The Handbook of Cutting Technology published jointly by IFS and Springer-Verlag, in 1989. It follows a similar and successful format and considers possibly the most prolific metalcutting machine tools used by industry today: turning and machining centres. First, in the opening chapter we will consider how these machine tools have evolved and developed to their current level of sophistication, try to explain how such equip ment is constructed, and discuss the various elements necessary to ensure quality workpieces occur. Furthermore, this chapter will help those not too familiar with this technology to gain an insight into the operating mechanisms. Chapter 2 is especially important as a thorough working knowledge of the latest cuttin tool technology is crucial if we are to capitalise upon the poten tial productive capacity offered by such machines. It has been written to complement and not to supersede the information given in the previous book the same could also be said about chapter 3, on cutting fluid Obviously, an important consideration for any machine tool is how we are to restrain and locate the workpiece in the correct orientation and with the minimum of set-up time. With this in mind, chapter 4, on workholding technology, was in cluded. However, it is by no means meant to be an exhaustive account of this important and often misunderstood technological application Chapter 5, on Cnc programming has been written in con junction with a major European supplier of controllers, so that the reader gains a more consistent and in-depth understanding of the logic used to program such machines The chapter is by no means a comprehensive appraisal of the subject of pro gramming, more an indication of how, why and where to

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