LTE communications and networks:femtocells and antenna design 2018

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高清pdf,英文版,2018新书,Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology has brought about a revolution in the field of wireless communications. It is also being used as a basis for the upcoming 5G technology and Internet‐of‐Things (IoT) concept, which will allow connectivity anywhere and anytime.
LTE Communications and Networks Femtocells and Antenna Design Challenges Edited by Masood Ur rehman and ghazanfar Ali safdar School of computer Science and Technology, University of Bedfordshire, Luton, UK WILEY This edition first published 2018 o 2018 John Wiley Sons Ltd All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by law. Advice on how to obtain permission to reusematerialfromthistitleisavailableathttp://www.wiley.com/go/permissions The right of Masood Ur Rehman and Ghazanfar Ali Safdar to be identified as the authors of the editorial material in this work has been asserted in accordance with law Registered offices John Wiley Sons, Inc, 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ07030, USA John wiley Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK Editorial office The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO198SQ, UK For details of our global editorial offices, customer services, and more information about Wileyproductsvisitusatwww.wiley.com Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats and by print-on-demand Some content that appears in standard print versions of this book may not be available in other formats Limit of liability Disclaimer of Warranty While the publisher and authors have used their best efforts in preparing this work, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives, written sales materials or promotional statements for this work. The fact that an organization, website, or product is referred to in this work as a citation and/or potential source of further information does not mean that the publisher and authors endorse the information or services the organization, website, or product may provide or recommendations it may make. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a specialist where appropriate Further, readers should be aware that websites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read. Neither the publisher ne authors shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Ur-Rehman, Masood, editor. Safdar, Ghazanfar Ali, 1973-editor Title: LTE communications and networks: femtocells and antenna design challenges edited by masood Ur rehman, Ghazanfar Ali Safdar Description: First edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons, 2018. Identifiers LCCN2017056167( print)|LCCN2018006050 ebook)|ISBN9781119385240(pdf) ISBN9781119385257(epub)|ISBN9781119385226 cloth) Subjects: LCSH: Long-Term Evolution(Telecommunications) Femtocells Antennas(Electronics)-Design and construction Classification: LCC TK510348325(ebook) LCC TK510348325. 7346 2018(print) DDC6213845/6-dc23 Lcrecordavailableathttps://lccn.loc.gov/2017056167 Cover design by wiley Cover image: o Jan Jirous/Shutterstock Set in 10/12pt Warnock by SPi Global, Pondicherry, India 10987654321 To my parents, Khalil ur Rehman and llfaz Begum and my siblings, Habib Ur rehman, Waheed Ur Rehman and Tahera kalsoom Masood ur rehman To my late parents, Safdar Hussain and Sadiq sultana and my two little angels, Taha and Taqi and my wife, Misbah Ghazanfar Ali safdar Contents List of contributors xv Preface xvi Introduction 1 Ghazanfar ali safdar and masood ur rehman 1.1 Evolution of Wireless and Cellular Communication 2 1.1.11G3 1.1.22G3 1.1.325G3 1.142.75G4 1.1.53G4 1.1.63.5G4 1.174G/LTE5 1.2 LTE Architecture 5 1.2.1 Communications Perspective Challenges in LTE Networks 8 1.2.1.1 Signalling system 8 1.2.1.2 Backward Compatibility 9 1.2.1.3 BS Efficiency 9 1.2.2 LTE Radio frame 10 1.3 LTE Antennas 11 1.4 LTE Applications 11 1.4.1 Communications 11 1.4.2 Public Safety 12 1.4.3 Device-to-Device Communications 12 1.4.4 Video Streaming 12 1.4.5 Voice over LTE(VOLTE) 12 1.4.6 Internet of Things 13 viii Contents 1.4.7 Wearable Systems 13 1.4.8 Cloud Computing 13 1.5 Book Organization 14 References 16 PartI LTE Femtocells 19 2 LTE Femtocells 21 Ghazanfar ali safdar 2.1 Introduction 21 2.1.1 Cross-Tier Interference 22 2.1.2 Co-Tier Interference 24 2. 1.3 Downlink Interference Modelling 24 2.1.4 Uplink Interference Modelling 25 2. 2 Platform for Femtocell Deployment 26 2.3 LTE Architecture Overview 26 2.3.1 LTE Downlink transmission 27 2.3.2 LTE Uplink Transmission 27 2.4 LTE Femtocell Interference analysis 28 2.4.1 Scenario 1: Cross-Tier Interference analysis 28 2.4.2 Scenario 2: Effects of Femtocell Access Mode Deployment 28 2.4.3 Scenario 3: Co- Tier Interference analysis 29 2.4.4 Scenario 4: Effects of Varying FAP Transmit Power Levels on MUes 29 2.5 Interference Mitigation: Current State of the art 31 2.5.1 Spectrum Access/Frequency Assignment 31 2.5.2 Power Control 32 2.5.3 Antenna Schemes 33 2.6 Cognitive Femtocells: A Smart Solution to a Complex Problem 33 2. 7 Summary 35 References 36 Interference Mitigation in Cognitive Radio-Based LTE Femtocells 38 Ghazanfar ali safdar 3.1 Introduction 39 3.2 Femtocells 41 Contents ix 3.2.1 Femtocells- Interference versus Deployment 43 3.2.2 Femtocells- Typical Interference mitigation Techniques 46 3. 2.2.1 Spectrum Access/Frequency Assignment Schemes 46 3.2.2.2 Power Control (PC) Schemes 46 3.2.2.3 Antenna schemes 48 3.3 Interference Mitigation in Femtocells using Cognitive Radio 49 3.3.1 Cognitive Interference Mitigation 51 3.3.1.1 Cognitive Interference Mitigation-PC 52 3.3.1.2 Cognitive Interference Mitigation- Spectrum Access 54 3.3.1.3 Cognitive Interference Mitigation- Antenna Schemes 64 3. 3.1.4 Cognitive Interference Mitigation -Joint Schemes 66 3.3.2 Cognitive Interference Mitigation versus Conventional Interference Mitigation 70 3.4 Summary 74 References 75 Coverage Area- Based power Control for Interference Management in Lte Femtocells 84 Ghazanfar ali safdar 4.1 Introduction 85 4.2 Coverage Radius Based power Control Scheme(Ps)88 4.2.1 Radius Limit Setting 89 4.2.2 Initial Coverage Radius 89 4.2.3 Self-Update 89 4.2.4 Final radius 89 4.3 System Mod 4.4 Performance Analysis 92 4.4.1 Results and discussion 93 4.4.1.1 SINR Cross-Tier( Single Cell) 93 4.4.1.2 SINR Co-Tier(Single Cell) 94 4.4.1.3 Downlink Throughput(Single Cell) 95 4.4.1.4 Co-and Cross-Tier SINR (Single Cell versus Multicell) 96 4.4.1.5 Droppage in SINR (Single Cell versus Multicell) 97 4.4. 1.6 Coverage Area Bounds and Impact on SINR Single Cell versus Multicell) 99 4.5 Summary 100 References 101 x Contents Energy Management in LTE Femtocells 104 Kapil Kanwal, Ghazanfar Ali safdar, Masood Ur Rehman and Xiaodong Yang 5.1 Introduction 105 5.2 Architecture of lte networks 105 5. 2. 1 Communications Perspective Challenges in LTE Networks 100 5.2.1.1 Signalling system 106 5.2. 1.2 Backward Compatibility 107 5.2.1.3 BS Efficiency 107 5.2.2 Importance of Energy Management in LTE Networks 108 5 Classification of es schemes 10 8 5.3. 1 Static Power Consumption 109 5.3.2 Dynamic Power Consumption 109 5.4 Energy Efficient Resource Allocation 113 5.4.1 Hybrid FBS and mbs Based Schemes 113 5.4.2 Link Adaptation Schemes 114 5.4.3 Cross Layer resource allocation Schemes 115 5.4.4 MBSEN Resource Allocation Scheme 115 5.5 Bandwidth Expansion Schemes 117 5.5. 1 CoMP Based Coverage Expansion 117 5.5.2 Time Compression(TCoM) Scheme 118 5.5.3 Bandwidth Expansion Mode(Bem) scheme 119 5.5.4 Component Carrier Based Schemes 121 5.5.5 Scheduling Based Schemes 122 5.6 Load Balancing schemes 123 5.6.1 Distance aware Schemes 123 5.6.2 Coverage Expansion Based Schemes 125 5.6.3 Distributed Schemes 125 5.6.4 Shared relay based Schemes 127 5.6.5 CRN Adopted Switching Off of a Bs 128 5.6.6 Reduced Early Handover (reHo) Scheme 129 5.7 Comparative Analysis 130 5.8 Open Research Issues 135 5.9 Summary 139 References 140 6 Spectrum Sensing Mechanisms in Cognitive Radio Based LTE Femtocells 150 azeen S Syed and Ghazanfar Ali Safdar Fundamentals of Signal Processing 151 Contents xi 6.1.1 Channel Model 151 6.1.1.1 Additive gaussian noise Channel 151 6.1.1.2 Linear filter Channel 152 6.1.1.3 Band Limited channel 153 6.1.2 Modulation Technique 153 6. 1.3 Error Probability 154 6.2 Spectrum Sensing Techniques 155 6.2.1 Primary Transmitter Detection 155 6.2.1.1 Energy Detector 156 6.2.1.2 Matched Filter Detection 158 6.2.1.3 Cyclostationary Feature Detection 159 6. 2.1.4 Waveform Detection 160 6.2.1.5 Wavelet detection 161 6.2.1.6 Hybrid Sensing 162 6.2.1.7 Multi-Taper spectrum Sensing 163 6.2.2 Collaborative/Cooperative Detection 16 6.2.3 Interference Temperature Detection 166 6.2.4 Primary receiver detection 166 6.3 History Assisted Spectrum Sensing 166 64 Model- and Statistics-Based Spectrum sensing Classification 167 6.5 Challenges and Issues 172 6.6 Summary 176 References 177 Partll Antennas for ltE Femtocells 185 7 Antenna Consideration for lte Femtocells 187 Masood ur rehman 7.1 Antenna Fundamentals 187 7. 1.1 Input Impedance and matching 188 7.1.2 Bandwidth 189 7. 1.3 Radiation Pattern 190 7.1.4 Directivity and gain 191 7. 1.5 Efficiency 193 7.1.6 Polarization 193 7.2 Antenna Requirements for LTE Femtocells 196 7. 2.1 Frequency Bands 197 7.2.2 Form Factor and size limitation 201 7. 2.3 Impedance Matching, Directivity, Gain and Efficiency 201

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