微波辐射计系统:Microwave Radiometer Systems:Design and Analysis

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微波辐射计系统Microwave Radiometer Systems:Design and Analysis(2nd,2006),微波辐射计经典教材,完美电子版
For a complete listing of the Artech House Remote Sensing library, turn to the back of this book Microwave Radiometer Systems Design and analysis Second edition Niels skou David Le vine ARTECH HOUS BOSTON LONDON artechhouse. com Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Skou, niels, 1947. Microwave radiometer systems: design and analysis/Niels skou, David Le vine.2nd ed P cm.(Artech House Remote Sensing library) Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 1-58053-974-2(alk. paper) 1. Radiometers-Design and construction. 2. Microwave detectors. I Le vine, D. M II. Title. III. Artech House remote sensing librar TK7876S57672006 621.3813-dc22 2005057085 British Library catalo guing Publication data Skou, Neils, 1947 Microwave radiometer systems: design and analysis --2nd ed - (Artech House remote sens- Ing library, 1. Radiometers--Design and construction 2. Microwave detectors I. Title il. le vin 621.3813 ISBN1-58053-974-2 Cover design by igor valdman gn by C 2006 ARTECH HOUSE INC 685 Canton Street Norwood, MA02062 All rights reserved. Printed and bound in the United States of America. No part of this book may duced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including pho tocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher all terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Artech House cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service ma International Standard Book Number: 1-58053-974-2 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2005057085 10987654321 Contents Preface Introduction Summary The radiometer Receiver Sensitivity and Accuracy 3.1 What is a radiometer receiver? 7 3.2 The Sensitivity of the radiometer 7 3.3 Absolute Accuracy and stability Ref Radiometer Principles 13 4.1 The Total Power Radiometer ( TPR) 13 The Dicke Radiometer ( dR) 14 4.3 The Noise-Injection Radiometer(NIR) 16 4.4 The Correlation Radiometer(CORRAD) 18 4.5 Hybrid Radiometer 20 Microwave Radiometer Systems: Design and Analysis 4.6 Other Radiometer Types 21 References 22 Radiometer Receivers on a block Diagram level 25 5.1 Receiver principles 25 5.1.1 Direct or Superheterodyne 5.1. 2 DSB or SSB with or without RF Preamplifier 26 5.2 Dicke radiometer 5.2.1 Microwave part 7 5.2.2 The Noise Figure and the Sensitivity of the Radiometer 29 5.2.3 The IF Circuitry and the Detector 5.2.4 The Extreme Signal Levels 5.2.5 The lF Circuit 33 5.2.6 The anal 34 5.2.7 On the Sampling in the Radiometer: Aliasing The noise-Injection Radi 38 5.4 The Total power radiometer 40 5.4.1 DSB Receiver without RF Preamplifier 4 5.4.2 SSB Receiver with RF Preamplifier 42 Stability considerations Refere The DtU Noise-Injection Radiometers Example References 53 Polarimetric Radiometers 7.1 Polarimetry and Stokes parameters 55 7.2 Radiometric Signatures of the Ocean 7.3 Four Configurations 3. 1 Polarization Combining radiometers 7.3.2 Correlation Radiometers 60 7.4 Sensitivit 62 7.5 Discussion of Configurations 64 Contents 7.6 The dtu Polarimetric System 64 eferences 68 Synthetic Aperture Radiometer principles 8.1 Introduction 69 8.2 Practical Considerations 72 8.2.1 RF Processing 72 8.2.2 Basic Equation 73 8.2.3 Image Processing 74 8.2.4 Sensitivit 75 8.3 xample 76 References 78 Selected bibliography 7 Calibration and linearity 81 9. 1 Why Calibrate 81 Calibration sources 82 9.3 Example: Calibration of a 5-GHz Radiometer 6 9.4 Linearity measured by simple means 7 9.4.1 Background 88 9.4.2 Simple Three-Point Calibration 9.4.3 Linearity Checked by slope measurements 92 9.4.4 Measurements 93 9.5 Calibration of polarimetric radiometers References 98 Sensitivity and Stability: Experiments with Basic radiometer receivers 99 10.1 Background 10.2 The Radiometers Used in the Experiments 100 10.3 The Experimental Setup 101 10.4 5-GHz Sensitivity measurements 102 Microwave Radiometer Systems: Design and Analysis 10.5 Stability measurements 103 10.5.1 Discussion of the 5-GHz DR Results 103 10.5.2 The 5-GHz DR with Correction Algorithm 105 10.5.3 The 17-GHz NIR Results 109 10.5.4 Discussion of the TPR results 111 10.5.5 Back-End Stability 113 10.6 Conclusions 114 References 115 Radiometer Antennas and Real Aperture Imaging Considerations 117 11.1 Beam Efficiency and Losses 117 11.2 Antenna Types 119 11.3 Imaging Considerations 121 114 The Dwell Time Per Footprint Versus the Sampling Time in the radiometer 125 11.5 Receiver Considerations for Imagers 130 References 131 Relationships Between Swath Width, Footprint Integration Time, Sensitivity, Frequency, and Other Parameters for Satellite-Borne, Real Aperture Imaging Systems 133 12.1 echanic 134 12.2 Push-Broom Systems 139 12.3 Summary and discussion 140 12.4 Examples 143 12.4.1 General-Purpose Multifrequency Mission 143 12.4.2 Coastal Salinity Sensor 143 12.4.3 Realistic Salinity sensor 144 13 First Example of a Spaceborne Imager: A General-Purpose Mechanical scanner 147 13. 1 Background 147 Contents 13.2 System Considerations 13.2.1 General Geometric and Radiometric Characteristics 149 13.2.2 Instrument Options 152 13.2.3 Baseline Instrument specifications 156 13.2.4 Instrument Layout and Receiver Type 156 13.3 Receiver design 157 13.3. 1 The Direct Receivers(10.65-36.5 GHz) 157 13.3.2 The 89-GHz DSB Receivers 158 13.3.3 Integrated Receivers: Weight and power 159 13.3.4 Performance of the Receivers 160 13.3.5 Critical Design Features 161 13.4 Antenna Design 163 13.5 Calibration and Linearity 165 13.5.1 Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration 165 13.5.2 On-Board Calibration 13.6 System Issues 167 13.6. 1 System Weight and power 167 13.6.2 Data Rate 168 13.7 Summar 169 Ref 170 14 Second Example of a Spaceborne Imager: A Se Salinity/Soil Moisture Push-Broom Radiometer System 171 14.1 Background 171 14.2 The Brightness Temperature of the Sea 172 14.3 The Brightness Temperature of Moist Soil 175 14.4 User Requirements for geophysical and Spatial Resolution 177 14.4.1 Salinity measurements 177 14.4.2 Soil moisture measurements 177 14.5 A 1.4-GHz Push-Broom Radiometer System 177 14.5. 1 Sensitivity Considerations 14.5.2 The 1.4-G Hz Noise-Injection Radiometer Receiver 178

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