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INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONS RESEARCH Ninth Edition FREDERICK S. HILLIER Stanford University GERALD J. LIEBERMAN Late of Stanford University
11762991i-xxiy.xd12/16/0806:51 PM Page ii Rev. Confirming pages The McGraw-Hill Companies Graw Higher Education INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONS RESEARCH NINTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 1221 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020. Copyright o 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Previous editions C 2005, 2001, and 1995. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any mcans, or stored in a databasc or retrieval systcm, without the prior writtcn consent of The McGraw-Hil Companies, Inc, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning Suine ancillaries lding electronic and print components, may not be available Lo customers outside L United State This book is printed on acid-free paper l234567890CCw/CCw09 ISBN9780-07-3376295 MHD0-07-3376299 Global Publisher: Raghothaman Srinivasan Sponsoring Editor: Debra B. Hash Director of Development: Kristine Tibbett Senior Marketing Manager: Curt Reynolds Project Manager: Melissa M. leick Senior Production Supervisor: Laura Fuller Senior Media Project Manager: Sandra M. Schnee Associate design Coordinator: Brenda a. roles Cover Designer: Studio Montage, St. Louis, Missouri Compositor: Laserwords Private Limited Typeface: 10/12 Times Roman Printer: Courier Westford, Int Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hillier. Frederick s Introduction Lo operations research Frederick S. Hillier, Gerald J. Lieberinanl.-9uh ed p. CI Includes index IsBN 978-0-07-337629-5-ISBN 0-07-337629-9(hbk: alk. paper) 1. Operations research. I Licbcrman, Gerald. l. Title T576H532010 6584032dc22 2008039045 www.mhhc.com -xxiv. axd 12/16/C8 06: 51 PM. Face iii Rev. Confirming Pages ABOUT THE AUTHORS Frederick S. Hillier was born and raised in Aberdeen. Washington where he was an award winner in statewide high school contests in essay writing, mathematics, debate, and music. As an undergraduate at Stanford University he ranked first in his engineer ing class of over 300 students. He also won the McKinsey Prize for technical writing, won the Outstanding Sophomore Debater award, played in the Stanford Woodwind Quintet, and won the Hamilton Award for combining excellence in engineering with no- table achievements in the humanities and social sciences. Upon his graduation with a B s. degree in Industrial Engineering, he was awarded three national fellowships (National Science Foundation, Tau Beta Pi, and Danforth) for graduate study at Stanford with specialization in operations research. After receiving his Phd degree, he joined the faculty of Stanford University, where he earned tenure at the age of 28 and the rank of full professor at 32. He also received visiting appointments at Cornell University Carnegie-Mellon University, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Canterbury (New Zealand), and the University of Cambridge(England). After 35 years on the stanford faculty, he took early retirement from his faculty responsibilities in 1996 in order to focus full time on textbook writing, and now is Professor Emeritus of Oper ations research at stanford Dr. hillier's research has extended into a variety of areas, including integer program- ming, queueing theory and its application, statistical quality control, and the application of operations research to the design of production systems and to capital budgeting. He has published widely, and his seminal papers have been selected for republication in books of selected readings at least 10 times. He was the first-prize winner of a research contest on Capital Budgeting of Interrelated Projects"sponsored by The Institute of Management Sciences(tIMs)and the U.S. Office of Naval Research. He and Dr. Lieberman also re- ceived the honorable mention award for the 1995 Lanchester Prize(best English-language publication of any kind in the field of operations research), which was awarded by the In stitute of Operations Research and the management Sciences(INFORMS) for the 6th edition of this book. In addition, he was the recipient of the prestigious 2004 INFORMS Expository Writing award for the &th edition of this book Dr. Hillier has held many leadership positions with the professional societies in his field. For example, he has served as Treasurer of the Operations Research Society of America (ORSA), Vice President for Meetings of TIMs, Co-General Chairman of the 1989 TIMS International Meeting in Osaka, Japan, Chair of the TIMS Publications Committee Chair of the orsa Search Committee for Editor of Operations Research, Chair of the ORSA Resources Planning Committee, Chair of the ORSA/TIMS Combined Meetings Committee, and Chair of the John von Neumann Theory Prize Selection Committee for INFORMS. He continues to serve as the series Editor for Springer's International Series in Operations Research and Management Science, a particularly prominent book series that he founded in 1993 In addition to Introduction to Operations Research and two companion volumes Introduction to Mathematical Programming(2nd ed, 1995)and Introduction to Sto- chastic Models in Operations Research(1990), his books are The Evaluation of risky Interrelated Investments(North-Holland, 1969), Queueing Tables and Graphs(Elsevier North-Holland, 1981, co-authored by O S. Yu, with D. M. Avis, L D. Fossett,F D. Lo, i 1i176299_=mi-xxiv Hxd 12/ 16/08 06: 51 PM Page iv Rev. Confirming pages ABOUT THE AUTHORS and Reiman), and Introduction to Management Science: A Modeling and Case Studies Approach with Spreadsheets(3rd ed, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2008, co-authored by M.S. Hillier) The late Gerald J. Lieberman sadly passed away in 1999. He had been Professor Emeritus of Operations Research and statistics at Stanford University where he was the founding chair of the Department of Operations Research. He was both an engineer(hav ing received an undergraduate degree in mechanical engineering from Cooper Union) and an operations research statistician(with an AM from Columbia University in mathematical statistics, and a Phd from Stanford University in statistics Dr Lieberman was one of stanford 's most eminent leaders in recent decades. After chairing the Department of Operations Research, he served as Associate Dean of the School of humanities and sciences. Vice Provost and dean of research. vice provost and dean of Graduate Studies, Chair of the Faculty Senate, member of the University Advisory Board and Chair of the Centennial Celebration Committee. He also served as provost on Acting Provost under three different Stanford presidents Throughout these years of university leadership, he also remained active profession- ally. His research was in the stochastic areas of operations research, often at the interface of applied probability and statistics. He published extensively in the areas of reliability and quality control, and in the modeling of complex systems, including their optimal de sign when resources are limited Highly respected as a senior statesman of the field of operations research, Dr. Lieberman served in numerous leadership roles, including as the elected president of The Institute of Management Sciences. His professional honors included being elected to the national Academy of Engineering, receiving the Shewhart Medal of the American Society for Quality Control, receiving the Cuthbertson Award for exceptional service to Stanford Univer- sity, and serving as a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. In addition, the Institute of Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS) awarded him and Dr Hillier the honorable mention award for the 1995 Lanchester Prize for the 6th edition of this book. In 1996, INFORMS also awarded him the prestigious Kimball Medal for his exceptional contributions to the field of operations research and management science In addition to Introduction to Operations Research and two companion volumes, Intro duction to Mathematical Programming(2nd ed, 1995) and Introduction to Stochastic Models in Operations Research(1990), his books are Handbook of Industrial Statistics(Prentice- Hall, 1955, co-authored by A. H. Bowker), Tables of the Non-Central t-Distribution(Stan ford University Press, 1957, co-authored by g. J. Resnikoff), Tables of the llypergeometric Probability Distribution(Stanford University Press, 1961, co-authored by D. Owen), Engineering Statistics, Second Edition(Prentice-Hall, 1972, co-authored by A. H. Bowker) and Introduction to Management Science: A Modeling und Case Studies Approach with Spread sheets(McGraw-Hill/lrwin, 2000, co-authored by F S Hillier and M.S. Hillier 1176299mLi-xxiv.4xd12/16/0806:51 PM Page v Rev. Confirming Pages ABOUT THE CASE WRITERS Karl Schmedders is an associate professor in the Department of Managerial Economics and Decision Sciences at the Kellogg Graduate School of Management(Northwestern University), where he teaches quantitative methods for managerial decision ma research interests include applications of operations research in economic theory, general equilibrium theory with incomplete markets, asset pricing, and computational economics Dr. Schmedders received his doctorate in operations research from Stanford University where he taught both undergraduate and graduate classes in operations research. Among the classes taught was a case studies course in operations research, and he subsequently was invited to speak at a conference sponsored by the Institute of Operations Research and the management Sciences (INFORMS)about his successful experience with this course. He received several teaching awards at Stanford, including the university's pres tigious Walter J. Gores Teaching Award. He also has received several teaching awards, in cluding the L G. Lavengood Professor of the Year at the Kellogg School of Management While serving as a visiting professor at WHU Koblenz (a leading German business school) he won teaching awards there as well Molly stephens is an associate in the los angeles office of Quinn, Emanuel, Urquhart Oliver Hedges, LLP. She graduated from Stanford University with a B S degree inIn- dustrial Engineering and an M.S. degree in Operations Research. Ms. Stephens taught pub lic speaking in Stanford's School of Engineering and served as a teaching assistant for a case studies course in operations research. As a teaching assistant. she analyzed operations re search problems encountered in the real world and the transformation of these problems into classroom case studies. Her research was rewarded when she won an undergraduate research grant from Stanford to continue her work and was invited to speak at an INFORMS con- ference to present her conclusions regarding successful classroom case studies. Following graduation, Ms. Stephens worked at Andersen Consulting as a systems integrator, experi encing real cases from the inside, before resuming her graduate studies to earn a Jd de gree(with honors) from the University of Texas Law School at Austin 176299-m1-xxiy.1xa12/160806:51 PM Page vl Rev. Confirming Pages DEDICATION To the memory of our parents and To the memory of my beloved mentor Gerald L. lieberman who was one of the truc giants of our field -xxiv. axd 12/16/C8 06: 51 PM. Face vii Rev. Confirming Pages TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE xviii CHAPTER 1 Introducti。n1 1. 1 The Origins of Operations Research 1 1. 2 The Nature of Operations Research 2 1.3 The Impact of Operations Research 3 1. 4 Algorithms and OR Courseware 5 Selected References 7 CHAPTER 2 Overview of the Operations Research Modeling Approach 8 2. 1 Defining the Problem and Gathering Data 8 2.2 Formulating a Mathematical Model 11 2.3 Deriving Solutions from the Model 13 2.4 Testing the Model 16 2. 5 Preparing to Apply the Model 17 2.6 Implementation 18 2.7 Conclusions 19 Selected references 19 Problems 20 CHAPTER 3 Introduction to Linear Programming 23 3. 1 Prototype Example 24 3.2 The Linear Programming Model 30 3. 3 Assumptions of Linear programming 36 3.4 Additional EXamples 42 3.5 Formulating and Solving Linear Programming Models on a Spreadsheet 60 3.6 Formulating Very Large Linear Programming Models 68 3.7 Conclusions 75 Selected references 75 Learning Aids for This Chapter on Our Website 76 Problems 77 e 3. 1 Auto Assembly 86 Previews of added cases on our website 88 Case 3.2 Cutting Cafeteria Costs 88 3.3 Staffing Case 3. 4 Promoting a Breakfast Cereal 88 -xxiv. exd 12/ 16/08 06: 51 PM Page viii Rev. Confirming pages vIII CONTENTS CHAPTER 4 Solving Linear Programming Problems: The Simplex Method 89 4. 1 The essence of the simplex Method 89 4.2 Setting Up the Simplex Method 94 4.3 The Algebra of the Simplex Method 97 4. 4 The Simplex Method in Tabular Form 103 4.5 Tie Breaking in the Simplex Method 108 4.6 Adapting to Other Model Forms 111 4.7 Postoptimality Analysis 129 4.8 Computer Implementation 137 4.9 The Interior-Point Approach to Solving Linear Programming Problems 140 4.10 Conclusions 1 45 Appendix 4. 1 An Introduction to Using LINDO and LINGO 145 Selected references 149 Learning Aids for This Chapter on Our Website 149 Problems 150 Case 4.1 Fabrics and fall fashions 158 Previews of added Cases on our website 160 Case 4.2 New frontiers 160 Case 4.3 Assigning Students to Schools 160 CHAPER S The Theory of the Simplex Method 161 5. 1 Foundations of the simplex Method 161 5.2 The simplex Method in Matrix Form 172 5.3 A Fundamental Insight 18 1 5.4 The Revised Simplex Method 184 5.5 Conclusions 187 Selected references 187 Learning Aids for This Chapter on Our Website 188 Proble l88 CHAPTER 6 Duality Theory and Sensitivity Analysis 195 6. 1 The Essence of Duality Theory 196 6. 2 Economic Interpretation ality 203 6.3 Primal-Dual Relationships 206 6. Adapting to other Primal Forms 211 6. 5 The Role of Duality Theory in Sensitivity Analysis 215 6. 6 The Essence of Sensitivity AnalysIs 21/ 6. Applying Sensitivity AnalysIs 225 6. 8 Performing Sensitivity Analysis on a Spreadsheet 245 6.9 Conclusions 259 Selected references 260 Learning Aids for This Chapter on Our Website 260 Problems 26 1 Case 6. 1 Controlling Air Pollution 274 Previews of added cases on our website 275 Case 6.2 Farm Management 275 Case 6.3 Assigning students to Schools, Revisited 275 Case 6. 4 writing a nontechnical memo 275 11762991i-xxiy.xd12/16/0806:51 PM Page iX Rev. Confirming Pages CONTENTS CHAPTER 7 Other Algorithms for Linear Programming 276 7.1 The Dual Simplex Method 276 7.2 Parametric Linear pro 280 7.3 The Upper Bound Technique 285 7.4 An Interior-Point Algorithm 287 7.5 Conclusi 298 Selected references 299 Learning Aids for This Chapter on Our Website 299 Problems 300 CHAPTER 8 The Transportation and Assignment Problems 304 8. 1 The Transportation Problem 305 8.2 A Streamlined Simplex Method for the Transportation Problem 319 8. 3 The Assignment Problem 334 8.4 A Special Algorithm for the Assignment Problem 342 8.5 Conclusions 346 Selected references 34/ Learning Aids for This Chapter on Our Website 347 Problems 348 Case 8.1 Shipping Wood to Market 356 Previews of Added cases on Our website 357 Case 8.2 Continuation of the Texago Case Study 357 Case 8.3 Project Pickings 357 ChAPTEr 9 Network Optimization Models 358 9. 1 Prototype Example 3 9. 2 The Terminology of Networks 360 9.3 The shortest-Path problern 363 9. 4 The Minimum Spanning tree problem 368 9.5 The maximum flow problem 373 9.6 The minimum Cost Flow problem 380 9.7 The Network Simplex Method 389 8 A Network Model for Optimizing a Project's Time-Cost Trade-Off 399 9.9 Conclusions 410 Selected refer Learning Aids for This Chapter on Our Website 41 1 Problems 412 Case 9.1 Mo Motion 420 Previews of added cases on our website 423 9.2 Aiding Allies 423 Case 9.3 Steps to Success 423 CHAPTER 10 ynamic Programming 424 10. 1 A Prototype EXample for Dynamic Programming 424 10. 2 Characteristics of Dynamic Programming Problems 429 10.3 Deterministic Dynamic Programming 431

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rm_ryt 这本书是翻译的,可惜除掉了不少高级主题,那些在原书第八版里面应该有提到。
2017-01-05
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u012760131 非常不错的一本书,高清版的,涉及面广,内容清晰简单,适合于某一研究方向的入门学习。
2015-04-19
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zhaoxinhaoye 运筹学这本书还是不错的,感谢分享!
2014-11-15
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