PFC2d使用手册

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User's guide Contents-3 3.3 Particle generation 3.3.1 Regular assemblies ··········:···.·:.:·.·::·:::.:::·:··..· 3.3.2 Irregular Assemblies 3.3.2. 1 Generation by Radius Expansion ..........................3-12 3.3.2.2 Generation by Explosive Repulsion ........................3-16 3.3 2. 3 Nonuniform size distributions .....,3-18 3.3.2.4 Filling of Complex Shapes 3-21 3.3.2.5 Creating Complicated Particle Clustcrs 3-22 3.3.2.6 Creating Clumps 垂垂看 3-22 3.3.2.7 Optimization ..3-27 3.4 Boundary Conditions 3-28 3 4.1 Walls as boundaries 3-28 3.4.2 Particles as boundaries 3.4.2.1 Fixed-Velocity Boundary particles ········::··········: 3-28 3-29 3.4.2.2 Applied forces to boundary particles 量垂 3-30 3.4.3 Mixed Boundary Conditions 3-31 3.5 Initial Conditions 3-34 3. 5. 1 Obtaining a Given Isotropic stress 3-34 3.5.2 Obtaining a Given Anisotropic stress ..............................3-38 3.6 Contact models 3-39 3.6.1 Contact-Stiffness models ...................................3-39 3.6.2 Slip and separation model ,音省。着 ,·· 3-40 3.6.3 Bonding models ····· 3-40 3.6.4 Locked-in forces ·····.·:.············.··.····· 3-43 3.7 Material Properties 3-44 3.7.1 Specification of Particle and Contact Properties .....................3-44 3.7.1. Spatial Variation of Properties 3-44 3.7.2 Direct Modeling Based on Known Micro-Properties ........ 3-46 3.7.3 Inverse Modeling with Unknown Micro-Properties 3-47 3.7.3. 1 Performing Simulated Biaxial Tests . .......................3-48 3.7.3.2 Results from the biaxial tests .,3-57 3.7.3. 3 Guidelines for Choosing micro-properties ...3-66 3.7.4 Joint planc 3-67 3.8 Loading, Solution and Sequential Modeling ...............................3-71 3. 8.1 Loading methods 3-71 3. 8. 1.1 Control of walls .....................,...................3-71 3.8.1. 2 Control of particle forces -a"Stress bounda 3-72 3.8.1. 3 Control of particle velocities 3-73 3. 8. 1. 4 Periodic bounday 3-73 PFC2D Version3. I Contents-4 User’ s Guide 3.8.2 Solution procedure ..............................................3-80 3.8.2.1 Static Solution 3-81 3.8.2.2 Dynamic Solution ...................... 3-82 3.8.2. 3 Dynamic Solution during Free Fall and Impact 3-87 3.8.3 Sequence of Modeling Operations ................. 3-87 3.9 Intcrpretation ...........................................................3-89 3.9.1 Diagnostic Forces 3-89 3.9.2 Ball and Wall Parameter histories .................................3-89 393 Energy Tracing∴ .390 3.9.4 Measurement circles 3-90 3.9.5 Spatial Field Variables ...........................................3-90 3.10 Modeling Methodology 3-92 3. 10.1 Modeling of Data-Limited Systems ...............................3-92 3.10.2 Modeling of Chaotic Systems .....................................3-92 3.10.3 Localization, Physical Instability and Path-Dependence .3-94 3.11 References 着看 3-95 4 FISH BEGINNERS GUIDE 4.1 Introduction and overview ··:·····:::::.::·.:······.·········· 4.2 Beginner,s Guide and tutorial 4-2 5 MISCELLANEOUS 5.1 PFC2D Runtime benchmark 5.,2 Error Reporting………… 5.2.1 Reporting via Internet 5-3 5.2.2 Reporting via Fax 5-3 6.3 Technical Support Service 瘤D着 6 BIBLIOGRAPHY PFC2D Version 3. 1 User's guide Contents-5 TABLES Table 2. 1 Maximum number of PFC2D particles in available RaM.......... 2-6 Table 2.2 Summary of boundary and initial condition commands........... 2-51 Table 2. 3 Basic commands for simple analyses...................2-67 Table 2.4 Systems of units- mechanical parameters ...2-70 Table 3. 1 Recommended steps for numerical analysis in geomechanics 3-5 Table 4. 1 Commands that directly refer to FISH names Table 5.1 PFC2d runtime calculation rates PFC2D Version3. I Contents-6 User’ s Guide FIGURES Figure 2. 1 Printed plot from "TEST3. DAT 2-10 Figure 2. 2 Initial PFC2D model for footing problem- box containing 500 balls... 2-13 Figure 2.3 y-velocity history of ball 130 ::·,· 2-17 Figure 2.4 Mean unbalanced force history 2-17 Figure 2.5 Gravitational contact forces at equilibrium................ 2-19 Figure 2.6 y-force history for wall 10.......................... .2-21 Figure 2.7 Contact forces due to footing load ,2-22 Figure 2. 8 Example of a PFC2D model .,,,,2-23 Figure 2.9 General solution procedure....................... 2-36 Figure 2.10 Resulting particle assembly from"genl. DAT 2-39 Figure 2. 11 Particles constrained to a non-rectangular region 2-41 Figure 2. 12 A semi-circular region of particles 2-42 Figure 2.13 Slope formed by dumping particles with friction coefficient of 1.0......... 2-49 Figure 2. 14 Slope formed by dumping particles with friction coefficient of0.577.... 2-49 Figure 2. 15 Mcan unbalanced forcc history..................... 2-56 Figure 2. 16 Mean unbalanced force and mean contact force histories beginning at cycle 3000. Figure217 y-velocity history for ball with ID number443i……,,…… ·········:·.···:: 2-57 Figure2.18 y-position history for ball nearest to(x-3,y……,… 2-58 2-59 Figure 2.19 y-position history for left-most ball in raft 2-61 Figure 2.20 Displacements induced by footing load... 2-62 Figure 2. 21 Contact forces due to footing load 2-62 Figure 2.22 Displacement induced by footing load (unlined tunnel 2-64 Figure 2.23 Contact forces after excavation of unlined tunnel 2-64 Figure 2.24 Displacements induced by footing load (lined tunnel).......... 2-66 Figure 2.27 Distortion associated with positive and negative shear strain,,.,....2-66 Figure 2.25 Contact forces after excavation of lined tunnel . .........................2-66 Figure 2. 26 Sign convention for positive shear stress components .∴2-68 ∴.2-69 Figure 2.28 The PFC2D main window .2-73 Figure 2. 29 The menu items 2-74 Figure 2.30 The FILE/CaLl dialog box. ...........................................2-75 Figure 2.31 A plot window 2-76 Figure 3. 1 Spectrum of modeling situations 垂垂 3-4 Figure 3. 2 Shcct of hexagonally packed particles. .................................3-10 Figure 3.3 Compacted assembly with two particle size distributions 3-20 Figure 3. 4 Balls generated within a complex shape using a generation filter 3-21 Figure 3.5 Clumps of pair-particles 3-22 figure 3.6 Convergence to an isotropic stress of-4.0 x 10 ..3-37 PFC2D Version 3. 1 User's guide Contents-7 Figure 3.7 Convergence to isotropic stress of-4.0 x 100.......................... 3-38 Figure 3.8 Contact logic ........................................................3-41 Figure3.9 Bonding logic.……,….3-41 Figure 3. 10 Rolling without slip at a contact bond 3-42 Figure 3. 11 Starting configuration of particles for biaxial test 3-51 Figure 3. 12 Axial deviatoric stress vs axial strain for elastic load/unload test ...,. 3-58 Figure 3. 13 Volumetric strain vS axial strain for elastic load/unload test........3-59 Figure 3. 14 Axial deviatoric stress and confining stress vs axial strain for test on unbonded granular material; unload/reload cycle is performed part-way through the 3-60 Figure 3. 15 Axial deviatoric stress and confining stress vs axial strain for test on bonded granular material: contact-bond strength =0.5 MN ····· 3-62 Figure 3. 16 Axial deviatoric stress and confining stress vs axial strain for test on bonded Figure 3. 17 Volumetric strain vs axial strain for test on bonded granular material: contact U granular material: contact-bond strength= 1.0 MN 62 bond strength=0.5MN.………3-63 Figure 3. 18 Volumetric strain vs axial strain for test on bonded granular material contact- Figure 3. 19 Axial deviatoric stress and confining stress vS axial strain for test on bonded bond strength=1.0 MN ····:··:·····:·:·:.··::················· granular material: parallel bonds................... 3-65 figure 3.20 Volumetric strain vs axial strain for test on bonded granular material: parallel 3-65 Figure 3. 21 Single joint with dip angle of 45 and origin at 3, 6).....................3-69 Figure 3.22 Multiple joint planes in a PFC2D model ::..·.:·::::·:· ∴.3-70 Figure 3.23 Particle assembly within periodic space ···:···· 3-74 Figure 3. 24 Time history of isotropic stress................. 3-75 Figure 3.25 Initial configuration under gravity: contact forces shown 3-84 Figure 3.26 Geometry after approximately 0.64 seconds of shaking 3-86 Figure 3. 27 Velocity histories at base, midpoint and top s time ..3-86 Figure 3. 28 A Small portion of a jointed rock mass. .................................3-93 PFC2D Version3. I Contents-8 User’ s Guide EXAMPLES Example2.1PFC2 D output fron“ TESTI.DAT” 2-9 Example 2.2 Creating and using a plot view .,.........,,.,,.... 12 Example 2.3 Specifying view parameters..................... 2-13 Example 2. 4 Using macros........................... 2-30 Example 2.5 Using line continuations....................... 2-31 Example 2.6 Using a named model obj ·量·着着 .2-31 Example 2.7 Illustrating the behavior of RANGE, GROUP and MACRO model objects .. 2-32 Example 2.8 Using macros Example2.9 Creating new commands∴….2-33 Example 2 10 Using different object types to do the same job............. 2-34 Example 2 1 1 Creating named ranges ........2-34 Example 2. 12 Form of BALL command 2-37 Example 2. 13 Creating a mixture of two discrete particle sizes.............2-39 Example 2. 14 Confining particles to a non-rectangular region 2-40 Example 2. 15 Generating a scmi-circular region of particles. .........................2-41 Example 2.16 Expanding the radii to create a compacted assembly .2-43 Example 2. 17 Adding friction to a compacting assembly 2-44 Example 2. 18 Numerical test for angle of repose of a slope 2-48 Example 2. 19 Footing composed of 4 balls ......2-52 Example 2.20 Stepping to initial equilibrium 2-55 Example 2.21 Applying a footing load and monitoring the response.......... 2-60 Example 2.23 Excavate and install a lined tunnel beneath the footing, Example 2.22 Excavate an unlined tunnel beneath the footing ····· 2-63 2-65 Example 2.24 Using comments during model testing 2-76 Example 2.25 The GUI tutorial file "TRENCHI DAT> 2-77 Example 3. 1 Producing a planar hexagonal packing................. 3-9 Example 3.2 Creating a model with specified porosity by radius expansion 3-14 Example 3. 3 Creating a model with specified porosity by explosive repulsion 3-16 Example 3.4 Creating a model with two size distributions by radius expansion 3-18 Example3.5 Data file(“ PAIRCLUMP2DDAT"”).…, 3-23 Example 3.6 Identify boundary balls and set their velocities.............3-29 Example 3. 7 Apply forces to boundary particles for equilibrium ····:···· 3-30 E ple 3.8 Apply mixed boundary conditions......,............ 3-32 Example 3.9 Realization of scheme to obtain a given isotropic stress state.......3-35 Example 3 10 Nonlinear variation in friction coefficient 3-45 Example 3 11 Creation and packing of particles 3-49 Example 3 12 Servo-control and initial stress state 3-53 Example 3. 13 Preparation for upcoming tests 翻看鲁 3-56 PFC2D Version 3. 1 User's guide Contents-y Example 3 14 Elastic load/unload test. .............................................3-58 Example 3. 15 Failure test, frictional strength only.................. 3-59 Example 3. 16 Failure test, friction and contact bonds-A ∴,3-61 Example 3. 17 Failure test, friction and contact bonds-B 3-61 Example 3. 18 Failure test, friction and parallel bonds ....3-64 Example 3. 19 Create a single joint through sample.........,........ 3-67 Example 3.20 Scaling of applied boundary forces .·::·..····:········ 3-72 Example 3. 21 FISH function to find total reaction force on controlled particles..... 3-73 Example3,22 Data file(“ PERIODIO_BLAX_1DAr”).………,… 3-75 example323 Data file(“ PERIODIC BIAX2.DAT”) ,.378 Example 3.25 Initial static equilibrium of a structure made of "beams,'..,,,,.....3-80 Example 3.24 FISH function to delete escaping particles ...3-82 Example 3. 26 Dynamic excitation of the structure .3-85 Example 4.1 Defining a FISH function......................4-2 Example 4.2 Using a variable 4-3 Example 4.3 SeTting variables............ ∴..4-3 Example 4.4 Test your understanding of function and variable names ................4-4 Example 4.5 Capturing the history of a Fish variable 4-5 Example 4.6 Using symbolic constants in a FISH function ···· Example 4.7 Controlled loop in FISH 4-7 Example 4.8 Manipulating variables in a loop construct 4-8 Example 4.9 Splitting lines............................ 4-8 Example 4.10 Variable types......... 鲁看 49 Example 4.11 Action of the F ELSE ENDIF construct................4-10 Example 4 12 Use of the coMMANd ENDCOMMANd construct ..4-10 Example 5.1 Benchmark data file-"timing. DAT PFC2D Version3. I Contents-lU User's guide PFC2D Version 3. 1

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