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Adaptive Control Algorithms, Analysis and Applications Second Edition Ioan Doré Landau, Rogelio Lozano, Mohammed M’Saad, Alireza Karimi
Series editors A. Isidori·JH. van Schuppen·ED. Sontag·M. Thoma·M. Krstic Published titles include Stability and Stabilization of Infinite Dimensional Switched linear systems Systems with Applications Zhendong Sun and Shuzhi s Ge Zheng-Hua luo Bao-Zhu Guo and Omer morgul Subspace Methods for System ldentification Nonsmooth Mechanics(second edition Tohru katayama Bernard brogl Nonlinear Control Systems Il loan d. landau and gianluca zito Alberto isidori Multivariable Computer-controlled Systems L2-Gain and Passivity Techniques in Nonlinear Control Efim N Rosenwasser and Bernhard P lamp Arjan van der Schaf Dissipative Systems analysis and Control Control of linear Systems with Regulation and Input (Second editi Constraints Bernard brogliato, Rogelio lozano, Bernhard Maschke Ali Saberi, Anton A. Stoorvogel and Peddapullaiah and olav egeland Sannuti Algebraic Methods for Nonlinear Control Systems Robust and Hoo control Giuseppe Conte, Claude H moog and Anna M. Perdon Ben m. chen Polynomial and Rational Matrices Computer Controlled Systems Tadeusz Kaczorek Efim N. Rosenwasser and Bernhard P Lampe Simulation-based Algorithms for Markov Decision Control of Complex and Uncertain Systems Stanislav V Emelyanov and Sergey K. Korov Hyeong Soo Chang, Michael C Fu, Jiaqiao Hu and Robust Control Design Using Hoo Method Steven l. marcus lan R. Petersen, Valery A. Ugrinovski and Iterative Learning Control Andrey V Savkin Hyo-Sung Ahn, Kevin L. Moore and Yang Quan Chen Model reduction for Control System Design Distributed Consensus in Multi-vehicle Cooperative Goro obinata and brian d.o. anderson Control Control Theory for Linear Systems Wei ren and randal w. beard Harry L. Trentelman, Anton Stoorvogel and Malo Hautus Control of Singular Systems with Random abrupt Functional Adaptive Control Simon g. fabri and visakan Kadirkamanathan El-Kebir doukas Positive /d and 2D Systems Nonlinear and Adaptive Control with Applications Tadeusz Kaczorek Alessandro astolfi. Dimitrios Karagiannis and romeo Identification and Control Using Volterra models Francis J. Doyle Ill, Ronald K. Pearson and Babatunde Stabilization, Optimal and Robust Control Aziz belmiloudi unmake Non-linear Control for Underactuated Mechanical Control of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Systems Felix L. Chernousko, Igor M. Ananievski and Sergey A. Reshmin Isabelle fantoni and rogelio lozano Robust Control (Second edition) Periodic systems Jurgen Ackermann Sergio bittanti and Patrizio colaneri Flow Control by feedbacl Discontinuous Systems Ole morten aamo and miroslav krstic Yury V orlov Learning and Generalization(Second edition) Constructions of Strict Lyapunov Functions Mathukumalli vidyasagar Michael malisoff and frederic mazen Constrained control and estimation Controlling Chaos Graham C. Goodwin. Maria m. seron and Huaguang Zhang, Derong Liu and Zhiliang Wan Jose a. de dona Stabilization of Navier-Stokes Flows Randomized Algorithms for Analysis and Control Ⅴ morel barbu of Uncertain Systems Distributed Control of Multi-agent Network Roberto Tempo, Giuseppe Calafiore and Fabrizio Wei Ren and Yongcan cao Dabbene loan Dore landau rogelio lozano Mohammed m saad. Alireza karimi Adaptive control Algorithms, Analysis and applications Second edition Springer Prof. loan dore landau Prof mohammed m'saad Departement d'automatique Centre de recherche (Ensicaen GIPSA-LAB (CNRS/INPG/UJF) Laboratoire greyc PO BOX 46 Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Ingenieurs 38402 St Martin d'Heres de caen C acre loan-dore. landau@ gipsa-lab grenoble-inp fr bd Marechal Juin 6 1 4032 Caen Cedex Prof rogelio lozano Fra UMR-CNRS 6599 msaad@ greyc. ensicaen fr Centre de recherche de royalieu Heuristique et Diagnostic des systemes Prof. alireza karimi Complexes Laboratoire d automatique Universite de technologie de compiegne Ecole Polytechnique federale de lausanne PO BOX 20529 60205 Compiegne 1015 Lausanne Switzerland alireza. karimi @ epfl. ch Rogelio. Lozano @ hds. utc. fr ISSN0178-5354 ISBN978-0-85729-663-4 e-ISBN978-0-85729-664-1 DOI10.10071978-0-85729664-1 Springer London Dordrecht Heidelberg New York British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Control Number: 2011930651 o Springer-Verlag London limited 2011 Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as per mitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be reproduced stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission in writing of the publish ers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of licenses issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers The use of registered names, trademarks, etc, in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant laws and regulations and therefore free The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made Cover design: VTeX UAB, Lithuania Printed on acid-free paper SpringerispartofSpringerScience+businessMedia(www.springer.com) To Lina Leticia, salima, noushin Vlad, Jessica, Rogelio, Azadeh and omid Ce qui est simple est toujours faux Ce qui ne l'est pas est inutilisable Paul valery Mauvaises pensees Preface Adaptive control provides techniques for the automatic adjustment of control param eters in real time either to achieve or to maintain a desired level of control system performance when the dynamic parameters of the process to be controlled are un known and/or time-varying The main characteristic of these techniques is the ability to extract significant information from real data in order to tune the controller and they feature a mechanism for adjusting the parameters of either the plant model or the controller. The history of adaptive control is long, significant progress in under standing and applying its ideas having begun in the early nineteen-seventies. The growing availability of digital computers has also contributed to the progression of the field. The early applications provided important feedback for the development of the field and theoretical innovations allowed a number of basic problems to be solved. The aim of this book is to provide a coherent and comprehensive treatment of the field of adaptive control. The presentation takes the reader from basic problem formulation to analytical solutions the practical significance of which is illustrated by applications. A unified presentation of adaptive control is not obvious. One rea- son for this is that several design steps are involved and this increases the number of degrees of freedom. Another is that methods have been proposed having di ent applications in mind but without a clear motivation for the intermediate design steps. It is our belief, however, that a coherent presentation of the basic techniques of adaptive control is now possible. We have adopted a discrete-time formulation for the problems and solutions described to reflect the importance of digital computers in the application of adaptive control techniques and we share our understanding and practical experience of the soundness of various control designs with the reader Throughout the book the mathematical aspects of the synthesis and analysis of var ious algorithms are emphasized; however, this does not mean that they are sufficient in themselves for solving practical problems or that ad hoc modifications of the algo rithms for specific applications are not possible. To guide readers, the book contains various applications of control techniques but it is our belief that without a solid mathematical understanding of the adaptation techniques available, they will not be able to apply them creatively to new and difficult situations. The book has grown out of several survey papers, tutorial and courses delivered to various audiences (grad uate students, practicing engineers, etc. in various countries, of the research in the Presa field done by the authors(mostly at Laboratoire d' Automatique de grenoble, now the Control Department of giPSa-Lab (Institut National polytechnique de greno ble/CNRS), HEUDYASIC (Universite Technologique de compiegne/CNRS), CIN VESTAV(Mexico, GrEYC(Caen)and the laboratoire d automatique of EPFl (Lausanne)), and of the long and rich practical experience of the authors. On the one hand, this new edition reflects new developments in the field both in terms of techniques and applications and, on the other, it puts a number of techniques into proper perspective as a result of feedback from applications Expected Audience The book is intended as a textbook for graduate students as well as a basic reference for practicing engineers facing the problem of designing adaptive control systems Control researchers from other areas will find a compre hensive presentation of the field with bridges to various other control design tech niques about the content It is widely accepted that stability analysis in a deterministic environment and convergence analysis in a stochastic environment constitute a basic grounding for analysis and design of adaptive control systems and so these form the core of the theoretical aspects of the book. Parametric adaptation algorithms(PAAs) which are present in all adaptive control techniques are considered in greater depth Our practical experience has shown that in the past the basic linear controller designs which make up the background for various adaptive control strategies have often not taken robustness issues into account. It is both possible and necessary to accommodate these issues by improving the robustness of the linear control designs prior to coupling them with one of the adaptation algorithms so the book covers this In the context of adaptive control, robustness also concerns the parameter adap tation algorithms and this issue is addressed in detail. Furthermore, multiple-model adaptive control with switching is an illustration of the combination of robust and adaptive control and is covered in depth in the new edition. In recent years, plant model identification in closed-loop operation has become more and more popular as a way of improving the performance of an existing controller. The methods that have arisen as a result are directly relevant to adaptive control and will also be thor oughly treated Adaptive regulation and adaptive feedforward disturbance compen sation have emerged as new adaptive control problems with immediate application in active vibration control and active noise control. These aspects are now covered in this second edition The book is organized as follows Chapter I provides an introduction to adaptive control and a tutorial presentation of the various techniques involved Chapter 2 presents a brief review of discrete-time linear models for control with emphasis on optimal predictors which are often used throughout the book Chapter 3 is a thorough coverage of parameter adaptation algorithms(PAA)oper ating in a deterministic environment. Various approaches are presented and then the stability point of view for analysis and design is discussed in detail Preface Chapter 4 is devoted to the analysis of parameter adaptation algorithms in a stochastic environment e Chapter 5 discusses recursive plant model identification in open loop which is an immediate application of pAas on the one hand and an unavoidable step in starting an adaptive controller on the other Chapter 6 is devoted to the synthesis of adaptive predictors e Chapter 7 covers digital control strategies which are used in adaptiv step ahead predictive control and long-range predictive control are presented in a unified manner e Chapter 8 discusses the robust digital control design problem and provides tech niques for achieving required robustness by shaping the sensitivity functions Digital control techniques can be combined with the recursive plant model iden tification in closed loop to obtain an adaptive controller. These recursive identifi cation techniques are discussed in Chap 9 The issue of robustification of parameter adaptation algorithm in the context of adaptive control is addressed in Chap. 10 . For special types of plant model structures and control strategies appropriate parametrization of the plant model allows direct adjustment of the parameters of the controllers yielding so called direct adaptive control schemes. Direct adaptive control is the subject of Chap 11 Indirect adaptive control which combines in real-time plant model parameter esti mation in closed loop with the redesign of the controller is discussed in Chap. 12 e Multimodel adaptive control with switching, which combines robust control and adaptive control, is discussed in Chap. 13 (new in the second edition) Rejection of unknown disturbances is the objective of adaptive regulation which is the subject of Chap 14(new in the second edition) Adaptive feedforward compensation of disturbances is discussed in Chap 15 (new in the second edition) Chapter 16 is devoted to the practical aspects of implementing adaptive con trollers Chapters 5, 9, 12, 13, 14 and 15 include applications using the techniques presented in these chapters. a number of appendices which summarize important back ground topics are included Problems and simulation exercises are included in most o of the chapters Pathways Through the Book The book was written with the objective of pre senting comprehensive coverage of the field of adaptive control and of making the subject accessible to a large audience with different backgrounds and interests thus the book can be read and used in different ways For those only interested in applications we recommend the following se quence: Chaps. 1, 2, 3(Sects. 3.1 and 3. 2), 5(Sects. 5.1, 5.2, 5.7 through 5.9) 7( Sects.7.1,7.2,7.3.1and7.3.2),8( Sects.8.1,8.2and8.3.1),9( Sects.9.1 and9.6),10(Sect.10.1),11( Sects.l1.land11.2),12( Sects.12.land12.2.1), 13( Sects.13.1,13.2and13.4),14( Sects.14.1,14.2,14.4and14.7),15( Sects.15.1, 15.2 and 15.5)and Chap 16 Most of the content of Chaps. 14 and 15 can also be

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