Incentives for Sharing in Peer-to-Peer Networks（英文论文+Google中文翻译）
一篇经典的关于P2P网络激励机制的英文论文，作者是斯坦福大学的Philippe Golle、Kevin Leyton-Brown、Ilya Mironov，附带了一份Google翻译过的中文。
Incentives Build Robustness in BitTorrent2008-03-07
Incentives Build Robustness in BitTorrent,<br>written by bram cohen.
Framework for Incentives in P2P2014-09-06
Framework for Incentives in P2P
论文-Reward or Penalty - Aligning Incentives of Stakeholders in Crowdsourcing2018-12-04
Incentives for Expressing Opinions in Online Polls.pdf2020-06-28
Incentives for Expressing Opinions in Online Polls.pdf
Enterprise Risk Management - From Incentives to Controls by James Lam.pdf2015-07-15
Enterprise Risk Management - From Incentives to Controls by James Lam.pdf
A Survey of Mobile Malware in the Wild2014-01-16
Mobile malware is rapidly becoming a serious threat. In this paper, we survey the current state of mobile malware in the wild. We analyze the incentives behind 46 pieces of iOS, Android, and Symbian malware that spread in the wild from 2009 to 2011. We also use this data set to evalu- ate the eectiveness of techniques for preventing and iden- tifying mobile malware. After observing that 4 pieces of malware use root exploits to mount sophisticated attacks on Android phones, we also examine the incentives that cause non-malicious smartphone tinkerers to publish root exploits and survey the availability of root exploits.
Software Engineering for Science provides an in-depth collection of peer-reviewed chapters that describe experiences with applying software engineering practices to the development of scientific software. It provides a better understanding of how software engineering is and should be practiced, and which software engineering practices are effective for scientific software. The book starts with a detailed overview of the Scientific Software Lifecycle, and a general overview of the scientific software development process. It highlights key issues commonly arising during scientific software development, as well as solutions to these problems. The second part of the book provides examples of the use of testing in scientific software development, including key issues and challenges. The chapters then describe solutions and case studies aimed at applying testing to scientific software development efforts. The final part of the book provides examples of applying software engineering techniques to scientific software, including not only computational modeling, but also software for data management and analysis. The authors describe their experiences and lessons learned from developing complex scientific software in different domains. About the Editors Jeffrey Carver is an Associate Professor in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Alabama. He is one of the primary organizers of the workshop series on Software Engineering for Science (http://www.SE4Science.org/workshops). Neil P. Chue Hong is Director of the Software Sustainability Institute at the University of Edinburgh. His research interests include barriers and incentives in research software ecosystems and the role of software as a research object. George K. Thiruvathukal is Professor of Computer Science at Loyola University Chicago and Visiting Faculty at Argonne National Laboratory. His current research is focused on software metrics in open source mathematical and scientific software. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Software Process for Multiphysics Multicomponent Codes Chapter 2 A Rational Document Driven Design Process for Scientific Software Chapter 3 Making Scientific Software Easier to Understand, Test, and Communicate through Software Engineering Chapter 4 Testing of Scientific Software: Impacts on Research Credibility, Development Productivity, Maturation, and Sustainability Chapter 5 Preserving Reproducibility through Regression Testing Chapter 6 Building a Function Testing Platform for Complex Scientific Code Chapter 7 Automated Metamorphic Testing of Scientific Software Chapter 8 Evaluating Hierarchical Domain-Specific Languages for Computational Science: Applying the Sprat Approach to a Marine Ecosystem Model Chapter 9 Providing Mixed-Language and Legacy Support in a Library: Experiences of Developing PETSc Chapter 10 HydroShare – A Case Study of the Application of Modern Software Engineering to a Large Distributed Federally-Funded Scientific Software Development Project
level climate change2017-09-07
Climate change has become the most globally concerned environmental issue. As the world’s largest carbon dioxide emitter and primary energy consumer, China has strong incentives to change its coal- dominated electricity structure. Various renewable powers such as wind and solar are suitable and necessary options for carbon emission reduction. The 12th Five-Year (2011–2015) and the mid-term until 2020 are critical periods for the development of Chinese renewable powers. In this paper individual renewable electricity sources were introduced based on their characteristics. Based on the introduction, the targets as well as their effects in the medium and long-term were presented and explained; challenges China has to face in the periods were discussed in detail, and emphasis was put on hydro, solar and wind power, which is highlighted in the plans. Also solutions against these challenges were recommended.
Bayesian Reinforcement Learning A Survey2019-01-09
Bayesian methods for machine learning have been widely investigated, yielding principled methods for incorporating prior information into inference algorithms. In this survey, we provide an in-depth review of the role of Bayesian methods for the reinforcement learning (RL) paradigm. The major incentives for incorporating Bayesian reasoning in RL are: 1) it provides an elegant approach to action-selection (exploration/ exploitation) as a function of the uncertainty in learning; and 2) it provides a machinery to incorporate prior knowledge into the algorithms. We first discuss models and methods for Bayesian inference in the simple single-step Bandit model. We then review the extensive recent literature on Bayesian methods for model-based RL, where prior information can be expressed on the parameters of the Markov model. We also present Bayesian methods for model-free RL, where priors are expressed over the value function or policy class. The objective of the paper is to provide a comprehensive survey on Bayesian RL algorithms and their theoretical and empirical properties.
Traditional network television programming has always followed the same script: executives approve a pilot, order a trial number of episodes, and broadcast them, expecting viewers to watch a given show on their television sets at the same time every week. But then came Netflix's House of Cards. Netflix gauged the show's potential from data it had gathered about subscribers' preferences, ordered two seasons without seeing a pilot, and uploaded the first thirteen episodes all at once for viewers to watch whenever they wanted on the devices of their choice. In this book, Michael Smith and Rahul Telang, experts on entertainment analytics, show how the success of House of Cards upended the film and TV industries -- and how companies like Amazon and Apple are changing the rules in other entertainment industries, notably publishing and music. We're living through a period of unprecedented technological disruption in the entertainment industries. Just about everything is affected: pricing, production, distribution, piracy. Smith and Telang discuss niche products and the long tail, product differentiation, price discrimination, and incentives for users not to steal content. To survive and succeed, businesses have to adapt rapidly and creatively. Smith and Telang explain how. How can companies discover who their customers are, what they want, and how much they are willing to pay for it? Data. The entertainment industries, must learn to play a little "moneyball." The bottom line: follow the data. Table of Contents Part I Good Times, Bad Times Chapter 1 House of Cards Chapter 2 Back in Time Chapter 3 For a Few Dollars More Chapter 4 The Perfect Storm Part II Changes Chapter 5 Blockbusters and the Long Tail Chapter 6 Raised on Robbery Chapter 7 Power to the People Chapter 8 Revenge of the Nerds Chapter 9 Moneyball Part III A New Hope Chapter 10 Pride and Prejudice Chapter 11 The Show Must Go On
Smart Grids (in China).pdf2019-12-05
As the largest electricity consumer in the world, China is suffering from serious environmental pollution resulting from the fossil fuel dominant energy supply. Smart grid is seen as a significant way to accommodate intermittent renewable energy, increase efficiency, and cultivate energy saving, and is treated as a prioritized industry in China. China has become the world’s largest market for the smart grid industry. This article analyzes China’s policies on smart grids, discusses the rules on market access for foreign direct investment (FDI) in smart grid industry, and also points out the main challenges. The author finds that, although the power grid industry is still under reform and facing a lot of challenges, there are many opportunities for FDI to get involved and incentives that foreign investment can utilize to promote their smart grid business development in China
Algorithmic Game Theory2008-10-23
In the last few years game theory has had a substantial impact on computer science, especially on Internet- and e-commerce-related issues. More than 40 of the top researchers in this field have written chapters that go from the foundations to the state of the art. Basic chapters on algorithmic methods for equilibria, mechanism design and combinatorial auctions are followed by chapters on incentives and pricing, cost sharing, information markets and cryptography and security. Students, researchers and practitioners alike need to learn more about these fascinating theoretical developments and their widespread practical application.
The Future of Retail2019-03-07
The Future of Retail - To the extent that there are two distinct sides to the argument, the position of Offline-to-Online (O2O) advocates is that, as more offline retailers are closing, brick-and-mortar stores, the transaction volumes for online stores will only continue to grow. For brick-and-mortar stores to survive, O2O — driving customers to a physical storefront to fulfill the transaction with online incentives — will absolutely come to dominate retail sales.
Inventory, Speculators, and Initial Coin Oﬀerings.pdf2019-12-24
Initial Coin Oerings (ICOs) are an emerging form of fundraising for Blockchain-based startups. We propose a simple model of matching supply with demand with ICOs by companies involved in production of physical products. We examine how ICOs should be designed| including optimal token oating and pricing for both the utility tokens and the equity tokens (aka, security token oerings, STOs)|in the presence of product risk and demand uncertainty, make predictions on ICO failure, and discuss the implications on rm operational decisions and prots. We show that in the current unregulated environment, ICOs lead to risk-shifting incentives (moral hazard), and hence to underproduction, agency costs, and loss of rm value. These ineffciencies, however, fade as product margin increases and market conditions improve, and are less severe under equity (rather than utility) token issuance. Importantly, the advantage of equity tokens stems from their inherent ability to better align incentives, and hence continues to hold even in unregulated environments. Initial Coin Oerings (ICOs) are an emerging form of fundraising for blockchain-based startups in which either utility and/or equity tokens are issued to investors in exchange for funds to help nance business1. This new way of crowdfunding2 startup projects has gained a lot of momentum since 2017 with the total amount raised skyrocketing to form a ten-billion-dollar market as of November 2018 (Coinschedule 2018). The growth of ICOs is also challenging the dominance of traditional means of raising capital. During Q2 2018, ICO projects raised a total volume of $9.0 billion (Coinschedule 2018), which is 56% of the amount raised by the US IPO market ($16.0 billion) or 39% of the amount raised by the US venture capital markets ($23 billion) dur
Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow,2013-04-21
The interests and incentives of managers and shareholders conflict over such issues as the optimal size of the firm and the payment of cash to shareholders. These conflicts are especially severe in firms with large free cash flows—more cash than profitable investment opportunities. The theory developed here explains 1) the benefits of debt in reducing agency costs of free cash flows, 2) how debt can substitute for dividends, 3) why “diversification” programs are more likely to generate losses than takeovers or expansion in the same line of business or liquidationmotivated takeovers, 4) why the factors generating takeover activity in such diverse activities as broadcasting and tobacco are similar to those in oil, and 5) why bidders and some targets tend to perform abnormally well prior to takeover.
FX OPTIONS AND STRUCTURED PRODUCTS2010-06-08
Treasury management of international corporates involves dealing with cash flows in different currencies. Therefore the natural service of an investment bank consists of a variety of money market and foreign exchange products. This book explains the most popular products and strategies with a focus on everything beyond vanilla options. The book explains all the FX options, common structures and tailor-made solutions in examples with a special focus on their application with views from traders and sales as well as from a corporate client perspective. The book contains actual traded deals with corresponding motivations explaining why the structures have been traded. This way the reader gets a feel for how to build new structures to suit clients’ needs. Several sections deal with the quantitative aspect of FX options, such as quanto adjustment, deferred delivery, traders’ rule of thumb and settlement issues. One entire chapter is devoted to hedge accounting, after which the foundations of a typical structured FX forward are examined in a case study. The exercises are meant as practice. Several of them are actually difficult to solve and can serve as incentives to further research and testing. Solutions to the exercises are not part of this book. They will, however, be published on the web page for the book, fxoptions.mathfinance.com.
BPM software and workflow applications: 1、Model the interactions among workers, systems, and information necessary for accomplishing work； 2、Coordinate and manage user-interactions； 3、Constantly optimize processes； 4、Adjust organizational structure and incentives to foster new behaviors； 5、Monitor process outcomes to performance targets for continuous improvement； 6、BPM software consists of an advanced toolkit used by managers, IT staff, and your employees to rapidly build composite workflow applications using drag-and-drop web-based tools. The development interface uses a flow-chart idiom, which provides a form of computer-aided software development by generating workflow programs directly from the process diagram.
Creating Truthtelling Incentives with the Bayesian Truth Serum.pdf2020-06-28
Creating Truthtelling Incentives with the Bayesian Truth Serum.pdf
【英文】麦格理报告：全球外汇展望：美元峰值Global FX Outlook: Peak USD Topping out2021-03-26
We cut USDCNY forecast to 6.95 by year end and 6.80 by 1H 2020, bringing forward the RMB gains we had expected through 2020 to the next 6 months. Despite the uncertainty near term on timing of Phase 1 deal, we think incentives for US and China to strike an agreement to support their economies are