c++17 标准文档

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c++17 标准文档(Working Draft, Standard for Programming Language C++ )
O ISO/IEC N4687 6. 9 Ty 77 6.10 Lvalues and rvalues 83 6.11 Alignment 84 7 Standard conversions 86 7.1 Lvalue-to-rvalue couversion 87 7.2 Array-to-pointer conversion 7 7. 3 Function-to-pointer conversion 7. 4 Temporary materialization conversion 7.5 salification conversions 88 7.6 Integral promotions 7.7 Floating-point promotion 7.8 Integral conversions 7.9 Floating-point conversions 7. 10 Floating-intcgral conversions 7. 11 Pointer conversions 7.12 Pointer to member conversions 90 7.13 Function pointer conversions 91 7. 14 Boolean conversions 7.15 Integer conversion rank 8 Expressions 93 8.1 Primary expressions 96 8.2 Postfix expressions 112 8.3 Unary expressions 124 8.4 Explicit type conversion(cast notation) 133 8.5 Pointer-to-member operators 134 8.6 Multiplicative operators 135 8.7 Additive operators 135 8.8 Shift opcrators 136 8.9 Relational operators 137 8.10 Equality operators 137 8. 11 Bitwise AND operator 139 8. 12 Bitwise exclusive OR operator 8.13 Bitwise inclusive OR operator 139 8.14 Logical AND operator 13 8.15 Logical OR operator 139 8.16 Conditional operator 140 8. 17 Throwing an exception 141 8. 18 Assignment and compound assignment operators 142 8. 19 Comma operator 143 8.20 Constant expressions 143 9 Statements 148 9.1 Labeled statement ....149 9.2 Expression statenent 149 9.3 Compound statement or block 149 9. 4 Selection statements 149 9.5 Iteration statements 152 9.6 Jump statements 154 9.7 Declaration statement 156 Contents O ISO/IEC N4687 9.8 Ambiguity resolution 157 10 Declarations 159 10.1 Specifiers 161 10.2 Enumeration declarations 178 10.3 Namespaces 181 10.4 The asm declaration 195 10.5 Linkage specifications 195 0.6 Attributes 198 11 Declarators 205 11.1T ype names .206 11.2 Ambiguity resolution 207 11.3 Mealing of declarators 208 114 Function definitions 220 11.5 Structured binding declarations 223 1. 6 Initialize 224 12 Classes 242 12.1 Class names 244 12.2 Class Lbers 246 12.3 Unions 257 12.4 Local class declarations 259 1 3 Derived classes 261 13. 1 Multiple base classes 262 13.2 Menber Ilalle lookup ) 13.3 Virtual functions 267 13.4 Abstract classes 272 14 Member access control 274 14.1 Access specifiers .275 14.2 Accessibility of base classes and base class members 276 14.3 Fricnds 279 14.4 Protected imernber access 282 4.5 Access to virtual functions 14.6 Multiple access 283 14.7 Nested classes 283 15 Special member functions 285 15.1 Constructors 285 15.2 Temporary objects 288 15.3 Conversions 291 15.4 Destructors 294 15.5 Free store 297 15.6 Initialization 298 15. 7 Construction and destruction 306 15.8 Copying and moving class objects 16 Overloading 317 16.1 Overloadable declarations 317 16.2 Declaration matching 319 Contents O ISO/IEC N4687 16.3 Overload resolution 16.4 Address of overloaded function 342 16.5 Overloaded operators 343 16.6 Built-in operators 348 17 Templates 351 17.1 Template parameters 353 17.2 Names of template specializations .358 17.3 Template arguments 360 17. 4 Template constraints 366 17.5 Type equivalence 370 17.6 Template declarations 371 17.7 Name resolution 391 17.8 Template instantiation and specialization 406 17.9 Function template specializations 420 17.10 Deductio 441 18 Exception handling 442 Throwing an exception 443 8.2 Constructors and destructors 445 18.3 Handling all exception 445 18.4 Exception specifications 447 18.5 Spccial functions 450 19 Preprocessing directives 452 9.1 Conditional inclusion 453 19.2S 455 19.3 Macro replacement 456 19.4 Line control ·垂 462 19.5 Error directive 462 19.6 Pragma directive 463 19.7 Null directive 463 19. 8 Predefined macro names 463 19.9 Prag ato 464 20 Library introduction 466 20.1 Gemeral 466 20.2 The C standard library 467 20.3 Definitions 467 20.4 Method of description (Informative 470 20.5 Library-wide requirements 475 21 Language support library 498 21.1 enera 21.2 COllLImIonI definitions 21.3 Implementation properties 503 21. 4 Integer t 512 21.5 Start and termination 513 21.6 Dynamic memory management 514 21.7 Type identificatie 21.8 Exception handling 524 Contents O ISO/IEC N4687 21.9 Initializer lists 21.10 Other runtime support 529 530 22 Diagnostics library 533 22.1 Gcncral 533 22.2 Exception classes 533 22.3 Asse 537 22.4 Error numbers 537 22.5 System error support 23 General utilities library 550 23.1 General .550 23.2 Utility components 550 23.3 COInlpile-tiIme integer sequences 555 23.4P 556 23.5 Tuples 560 23.6 Optional objects 571 23.7 Variants 586 23. 8 Storage for any type 598 23 9 Bitset 603 23.10 MeNory 610 23.11 Smart pointers 625 23. 12 Memory rcsourccs 654 23 13 Class template scoped_ allocator- adaptor 665 23 14 Function objects 23. 15 Metaprogramming and type traif 671 695 23. 16 Compile-time rational arithmetic 720 23.17 Time utilities 723 23.18 Class type_index 74 23.19 Exccution policics 741 23.20 Primitive numeric conversions 743 24 Strings library 747 24.1 Ge 747 24.2 Character trait 747 24.3 String classes 753 24.4 String view classes 787 24.5 Null-tcrminated scqucncc utilities 797 25 Localization library 803 25.1G 803 25.2 Header <locale> synopsis 803 25.3 Locales 25.4 Standard locale categories 812 25.5 C library locales 849 26 Containers library 851 26. 1 General 851 26.2 Container requirements 851 26.3 Sequence containers 26.4 Associative containers 921 Contents O ISO/IEC N4687 26.5 Unordered associative containers 12 26.6 Container adaptors 966 27 Iterators library 976 27.1 Gcncral 976 27.2 Iterator requirements 976 27. 3 Header <iterator> synopsis 982 27.4 Iterator primitives 985 27.5 Iterator adaptors ...988 27.6 Stream iterators 1001 27.7 Range access 1008 27.8 Container access ..1009 28 Algorithms library 1010 28 General 1010 28. 2 Header <algorithm> synopsis 1010 28.3 Algorithms requirements ..1029 28.4 Parallel algorithms 1030 28.5 Non-modifying sequence operations ....,,,,.,1033 28.6 Mutating sequence operations 1041 28.7 Sorting ations 28.8 C library algorithms 1070 29 Numerics library 1071 29.1 General 1071 29.2 Definitions 1071 29. 3 Numeric type requirements 1071 29.4 The floating-point environment .1072 29.5 Complex nuinbers ·垂 ...1073 29.6 Random number generation 1083 29.7 Numeric arrays 1126 29.8 Generalized numeric operations ...1146 29.9 Mathematical functions for floating-point types 1160 30 Input/output library 1178 30.1 Gcncral 1178 30.2 lostreaIlls requireents 1179 30.3 Forward declarations 1179 30.4 Standard iostream objects 1181 30.5 iostreams base classes 1183 30.6 Stream buffers .1200 30.7 Formatting and manipulators 120 09 30.8 String-based streams 1235 30.9 File-based streams 1246 30.10 File systems 1260 30.11 C library files .,,..,,,,,.,.1314 31 Regular expressions library 1318 31.1 General 1318 31.2 Definitions 1318 31.3 Requirements .1319 Contents O ISO/IEC N4687 31.4 Leader <regex> synopsis 1321 31.5 Namespace std:: regex_constants 1327 31.6 Class regex error 1330 31.7 Class template regex traits 1331 31.8 Class template basic_regex 1333 31.9 Class template sub match 1339 31.10 Class template match results 1344 31.11 Regular expression algorithIns 31.12 Regular expression itera tors 354 31 13 Modified ECMAScript regular expression gramma 1360 32 Atomic operations library 1363 32.1 General 1363 32.2 Header <atomic> synopsis 1363 32.3 Typc aliase 1367 32.4 Order and consistency 1367 32.5 Lock-free propert 1369 32.6 Class template atomic 1369 32.7 Non-member functions ..1377 32.8 Flag type and operations 1377 32.9 Fences .1378 33 Thread support library 1380 33 1 General .1380 33.2 Requirements 1380 33.3 Threads 1383 33. 4 Mutual exclusion 1388 33.5 Condition variables 1409 33.6 Futures 1416 A Grammar summary 1433 A 1 K 1433 A 2 Lexical conventions .1433 A3 Basic concepts 1438 A 4 Expressions 1438 A.5 Statements ,1443 A 6 Declarations A7 De 1448 A 8 CI 1450 A d cla 141 A 10 Special member functions 1452 A 11 Overload 1452 A 12 Templates 1452 A 13 Exception handling ..,.1454 A14 Preprocessing directives 1454 B Implementation quantities 1457 C Compatibilit 1459 C1 C++ and Iso c C 2 C++ and ISO C++ 2003 1468 Contents O ISO/IEC N4687 C 3 C++ and ISO C++ 2011 1475 C. C++ and Iso c++ 2014 1477 C5 C++ and Iso c++ 2017 1481 C 6 C standard library 1481 D Coinlpatibility features 1484 D 1 Redeclaration of static constexpr data members 1484 D 2 Implicit declaration of copy functions 1484 D 3 Deprecated exception specifications 1484 D 4 C++ standard library headers 1484 D C standard library headers 1485 D 6 chark streams 1485 D 7 uncaught_ exception 1494 D 8 Old adaptable function bindings 1494 D 9 Thc default allocator 1499 D 10 Raw storage iterator 1500 D 11 Temporary buffers .1501 D 12 Deprecated type traits 1502 D 13 Deprecated iterator primitives 1503 D 14 Deprecated shared_ptr observers 1503 D 15 Deprecated standard code conversion facets 1503 D 16 Deprecated convenience conversion interfaces 1505 Bibliograph 1510 Cross references 1511 Cross references from Iso c++ 2017 1532 Index 1533 Index of grammar productions 1567 Index of library names 1571 Index of implementation-defined behavior 1629 Contents O ISO/IEC N4687 List of tables Alternative tokens 2 Ranges of characters allowed 27 3 Ranges of characters disallowed initially (combining characters 27 4 Identifiers with special ineaning 5 K 28 6 Alternative representations 7 Types of integer literals 30 8 Escape sequences 33 9 String literal concatenations 36 10 Rclations on const and volatile 11 simple-type-specifiers and the types they specify 172 12 Relationship between operator and function call notation 325 13 Conversions 35 14 Value of folding empty sequences 378 15 Library categories 466 16 C++ library headers 476 17 C++ headers for C library facilities 476 18 C standard Anncx K namcs 477 19 C++ headers for freestanding implementations 478 20 EqualityComparable requirements 479 21 Less ThanComparable requirements 479 22 Default Constructible requirements 479 23 Move Constructible requirements 24 Copy Constructible requirements(in addition to Move Constructible 480 25 MoveAssignable requirements 480 26 Copy Assignable requirements(in addition to MoveAssignable) 480 27 Destructible requirements 480 28 NullablePointer requirements 48 29 Hash requirements 483 30 Descriptive variable definitions 483 31 Allocator requirements 485 32 Language support library summary 498 33 Diagnostics library summary 533 4 General utilities library summary 35 optional: operator=(const optional&) effects 36 optional: operator=(optional&&)effects 577 37 optional: operator=(const optional<U>&)effects 578 38 optional:: operator=(optional<u>&.&) effects 579 List of tables

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