Practical Research Planning and design Practical Research: Planning and Design is a broad-spectrum, cross-disciplinary book suitable for a wide variety of courses in basic research methodology. CHAPTER 1 the Nature and tools of Research Focusing Your Research Efforts CHAPTER 2 the Problem:the heart of the Research Process 27 CHAPTER 3 Review of the Related literature 52 CHAPTER 4 Planning Your Research Project 74 CHAPTER 5 writing the Research Proposal Quantitative Research CHAPTER 6 descriptive Research 136 CHAPTER 7 experimental, Quasi-experimental, and ex Post facto designs 178 CHAPTER 8 analyzing Quantitative data Qualitative Research CHAPTER 9 Qualitative Research methods 251 CHAPTER 10 historical Research 278 CHAPTER 11 analyzing Qualitative data Mixed-Methods Research CHAPTER 12 mixed-methods designs 31 Research Reports CHAPTER 13 Planning and Preparing a final Research Report
Practical researc PLANNING AND DESIGN ELEVENTH EDITION Paul D. Leedy Late of American University and Jeanne Ellis Ormrod University of Northern Colorado (emerita) PEARSON Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Hoboken Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo A01 ORMR1 322 11 SE FM. indd 1 E/8141:57AM Vice President and Editorial Director: Jeffery W. Johnston Vice President and Publisher: Kevin davis Editorial Assistant: Caitlin Griscom Development Editor: Gail Gottfried Executive Field Marketing Manager: Krista Clark Vice President, Director of Marketing: Margaret Waples Senior Product Marketing Manager: Christopher Barry Project Manager: Lauren Carlson Procurement Specialist: Carol Melville Senior art director: Diane lorenzo Cover Designer: Jennife Full-Service Project Management: Mary Tindle, SiCarlisle Publishing Services Composition: SiCarlisle Publishing Services Printer/Binder: Courier Kendallville Cover Printer: Courier Kendallville Credits and acknowledgments for materials borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission,in this textbook appear on the appropriate page within text. Every effort has been made to provide accurate and current Internet information in this book. However, the Internet and information posted on it are constantly changing, so it is inevitable that some of the Internet addresses listed in this textbook will change Copyright C 2016, 2013, 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Manufac tured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information re garding permissions, request forms, and the appropriate contacts within the Pearson Education Global Rights &peRmissionsdepartmentpleasevisitwww.pearsoned.com/permissions PEARSON and ALWAYS LEARNING are exclusive trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries owned by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data dy, Paul D Practical research: planning and design/Paul D. Leedy, Jeanne Ellis Ormrod, University of Northern Colorado(Emerita). Eleventh edition pa ages cm Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN-13:978-0-13-374132-2 ISBN-10:013-37132X Research- Methodology. I. Ormrod, Jeanne Ellis. II. Title Q180.5.ML132015 001.4dc23 2014023060 PEARSON ISBN 10 0-13-374132-X ISBN13:978-0-13-374132 A01 ORMR1 322 11 SE FM. indd 2 E/8141:57AM Preface NEW TO THE ELEVENTH EDITION Every year brings exciting new strategies in research methodologies, making any updated edi- tion of Practical Research a joy to write. With this eleventh edition, the book has been revised in numerous ways. As always, every page has been revisited--every word, in fact-and many minor changes have been made to tighten the prose or enhance its clarity. Also, discussions of technology-based strategies have been updated to reflect not only new software options but also the increasing technological sophistication of most of our readers Probably the cwo most noteworthy changes in this edition are the addition of a new chap ter and a reorganization of some of the other chapters. In response to reviewers' requests, the tenth editions chapter"Qualitative Research"has been expanded into two chapters, "Qualita- tive Research Methods "and"Analyzing Qualitative Data. Discussions of quantitative research methods now precede (rather than follow) discussions of qualitative methodologies, and the chapter on analyzing quantitative data now immediately follows the two chapters on quantita re methodolo Other significant changes in the eleventh edition are these Chapter 1. Revision of Figure 1.1 and accompanying text to include seven (rather than six steps in order to better align with discussions that follow in the chapter; new section on philosophical underpinnings of various methodologies; new discussion of quantitative vs qualitative vs. mixed-methods research(moved from its previous location in Chapter 4); dis cussion of the iterative nature of research; expansion of Table 1.1; revision of the guidelines for using word processing software to focus on features that readers may not routinely use in heir day-to-day writing Chapter 2. Introduction of the idea of a priori hypotheses(to distinguish them from hypotheses that researchers might form midway through a study ) new discussion about identifying the limitations (as well as delimitations)of a proposed study Chapter 3. Elimination of outdated sections"Using Indexes and Abstracts"and"Lo- cating relevant government documents "with electronically based strategies in those sections being incorporated into the sections"Using Online Databases"and Surfing the Internet"; relocation of the discussion of database creation to the Practical Application Planning a Literature Search Chapter 4. Better balance between discussions of quantitative and qualitative approaches; addition of design-based rescarch to what is now Table 4.2(previously Table 1.5) Chapter 6(formerly Chapter 8). New discussion of rubrics; omission of a random num- bers table(because such tables are widely available on the Internet); expanded discussion of possible biases in descriptive research; new Guidelines feature("Identifying Possible Sampling Bias in Questionnaire Research"); new Checklist feature("Identifying Poten tial Sources of Bias in a Descriptive study") A01 ORMR1 322 11 SE FM. indd 3 E/8141:57AM Preface Chapter 7(formerly Chapter 9). New section on possible biases in quantitative re search; new Checklist ("Identifying Potential Sources of Bias and Potential Threats to External Validity in an Experimental, Quasi-Experimental, or Ex Post Facto Study Chapter 8(formerly Chapter 11). New example (regarding a cancer prognosis)as an illustration of the limitations of a median as a predictor, addition of the five-number summary as a possible indicator of variability in ordinal data Chapter9(formerly Chapter 6). Focus now on general design, planning, and data co lection in qualitative research, with data analysis being moved to the new Chapter 11 new section on validity and reliability; expanded discussion of how cultural differences can influence interviews; relocation of the extensive example in international relations (formerly in the chapter"Descriptive Research")to this chapter, where it is more appro- priately placed Chapter 10(formerly Chapter 7). Expanded discussion of possible biases in primary and secondary sources; updated and expanded list of online databases Chapter 11 (new chapter). Greatly expanded discussion of qualitative data analysis new Checklist ("Pinning Down the Data Analysis in a Qualitative Study"); new Sam pl le dissertation(by society for research in Child development award winner christy Chapter 12(formerly Chapter 10). Expanded discussion of mixed-methods designs with a new fifth category, mnltiphase iterative designs; new Conceptual Analysis Exercise (" Identifying Mixed-Methods Research Designs"); new section on sampling; expanded discussion of data analysis strategies; new Practical Application section discussing help ful software for analyzing mixed-methods data; new section on systematic reviews Chapter 13(formerly Chapter 12). Better balance bet ween quantitative and qualitative research reports; reorganization and revision of the section"Essential Elements of a Research Report"(formerly titled"Planning a Rescarch Report ); updated discussion of APA style for electronic resources; new Guidelines feature("Writing a Clear, Coherent report") THE PURP○ SE OF THIS BOOK Practical Research: Planning and Design is a broad-spectrum, cross-disciplinary book suitable for a wide variety of courses in basic research methodology. Many basic concepts and strategies in research transcend the boundaries of specific academic areas, and such concepts and strategies are at the heart of this book. To some degree, certainly, research methods do vary from one subject area to another: A biologist might gather data by looking through a microscope, a historian by examining written documents from an earlier time period, and a psychologist by administer ing certain tests or systematically observing people's behavior. Otherwise, the basic approach te research is the same. Regardless of the discipline, the researcher identifies a question in need of an answer, collects data potentially relevant to the answer, analyzes and interprets the data, and draws conclusions that the data seem to warrant Students in the social sciences the natural sciences, education, Inedicine, business ad istration, landscape architecture, and other academic disciplines have used this text as a guide to the successful completion of their research projects. Practical Research guides students from problem selection to completed research report with many concrete examples and practical how-to suggestions. Students come to understand that research needs planning and design, and they discover how they can effectively and professionally conduct their own research projects Essentially, this is a do-it-yourself, understand-it-yourself manual. From that standpoint, it can be a guide for students who are left largely to their own resources in carrying out their research projects. The book, supplemented by occasional counseling by an academic advisor, can guide the student to the completion of a successful research project A01 ORMR1 322 11 SE FM. indd 4 E/8141:57AM Preface LEARNING ABOUT THE RESEARCH PROCESS IS AN ESSENTIAL COMPONENT OF ACADEMIC TRAINING All too often, students mistakenly believe that conducting research involves nothing more than amassing a large number of facts and incorporating them into a lengthy, footnoted paper. They reach the threshold of a master's thesis or doctoral dissertation only to learn that simply as sembling previously known information is insufficient and unacceptable. Instead, they must do something radically different: They must answer a question that has never been answered before and, in the process, must discover something that no one else has ever discovered. Something has gone tragically wrong in the education of students who have, for so many years of their school- ing, entirely misunderstood the true nature of research R of“ truth.”Its ose is to learn what has never before been known; to ask a significant question for which no conclusive answer has previously been found; and, by collecting and interpreting relevant data, to find an answer to at question. Learning about and doing research are of value far beyond that of merely satisfying a pro gram requirement. Research methods and their application to real-world problems are skills that will serve you for the rest of your life. The world is full of problems that beg for solutions onsequently, it is full of research activity The media continually bring us news of previously unknown biological and physical phenomena, life-saving medical interventions, and ground breaking technological innovations--all the outcomes of research. Research is not an academic banality, it is a vital and dynamic force that is indispensable to the health and well-being of Planet earth and its human and nonhuman inhabitants More immediate, however, is the need to apply research methodology to those lesser daily problems that nonetheless demand a thoughtful resolution. Those who have learned how to ana lyze problems systematically and dispassionately will live with greater confidence and success than those who have shortsightedly dismissed research as nothing more than a necessary hurdle on the way to a degree. Given the advantages that a researcher's viewpoint provides, consider- ing an academic research requirement as annoying and irrelevant to one s education is simply an untenable position Many students have found Practical Research quite helpful in their efforts both to understand the nature of the research process and to complete their research projects. Its simplification of re- search concepts and its readability make it especially suitable for those undergraduate and gradu- ate students who are introduced, perhaps for the first time, to genuine research methodology We hope we have convinced you that a course on research methodology is not a temporary hurdle on the way to a degree but, instead, an unparalleled opportunity to learn how you might better tackle any problem for which you do not have a ready solution. In a few years you will un- doubtedly look back on your research methods course as one of the most rewarding and practi courses in your entire educational experience A01 ORMR1 322 11 SE FM. indd E/8141:57AM Acknowledgments No man is an iland, entire of it selfe; every man is a peece of the Continent, a part of the maine So wrote John Donne, the great dean of St. Pauls Cathedral in the 17th century. And so do we authors write in the 2lst century Those who have had a part in the making of this book known and unknown, friends and colleagues, gentle critics and able editors--all--are far too many to salute individually. Those of you who have written in journals and textbooks about research methods and strategies, the generations of graduate and undergraduate students whom we authors have taught and who have also taught us, the kindly letters and e-mail messages that so many of you have written to de scribe how this book has helped you in your own research endeavors--to all of you, I extend my acknowledgment and appreciation wherever you may be. You have had the greater part in bring ing this book through its previous ten editions. I am especially grateful to the reviewers of the eleventh edition, who recently offered many good suggestions for strengthening the book so that it can better assist novice researchers in the 21st century: Brian Belland, Utah State University Robert hayden, Michigan State University; Walter Nekrosius, Wright State University; Lloyd Rieber, University of Georgia; and Susan Twombly, University of Kansas I am also indebted to the students whose research proposals, doctoral dissertations, and master's theses have enabled me to illustrate some of the research and writing strategies described in the book. In particular, I extend my gratitude to Rosenna Bakari, Arthur Benton, Jennifer Chandler, Kay Corbett, Dinah Jackson, Ginny Kinnick, Laura Lara-Brady, Peter Leavenworth, Christy leung Matthew McKenzie, Kimberly Mitchell, Richard Ormrod, Luis Ramirez, Janie Shaklee, Nancy Thrailkill, and Debby Zambo. Pete Leavenworth and Matt mcKenzie gave me their time as well as their research reports, and their recommendations for the chapter on historical research were superb Equally important is to say Thank you, thank you, thank you" to many folks at Pearson and S4 Carlisle who have been key players in bringing this book to fruition. In particular, I extend my deepest gratitude to Gail Gottfried, who has lined up helpful multimedia supplements to the book and, in general, has been a regular and reliable sounding board and source of support throughout my writing endeavors in recent years. Thanks also to Lauren Carlson and Mary Tindle, both of whom have expertly coordinated what has become an ever-evolving and increasingly complex textbook-production process in the electronic age. A shout-out to Chris Feldman, whose close attention to nitty-gritty details during copy edits has consistently warmed the cockles of my obsessive-compulsive heart. And several people have worked diligently outside my range of sight to make the whole project come together, hearty thanks to Kate Wadsworth for the interactive quizzes and end-of-chapter activities, as well as to Carrie Mollette, Caroline Fenton and Caitlin Griscom for the many behind-the-scenes contributions I can only begin to fathom Finally, I must thank our editor, Kevin Davis, for his guidance throughout this and preced ing editions. Throughout its many editions, Kevin has shared Paul's and my vision for the book and struck the ever-sO-important balance between providing guidance to help us improve it hile als ing our instincts about how best to explain and illustrate the complex, multifac eted nature of research planning and design No author is an island, entire of itself. Paul and i have had many hands guiding our pens and many lds add dingly helpful, all of have been"a peece of the Continent, a part of the maine. "For that, Ioffer my humble and hearty thank Jeanne ellis ormria A01 ORMR1 322 11 SE FM. indd 6 E/8141:57AM Brief Contents Preface Acknowledgments PART I The fundamentals chapter 1 The nature and Tools of research PART I Focusing Your Research Efforts CHAPTER 2 The problem: The heart of the research process 27 CHAPTER 3 Review of the related Literature 52 CHAPTER 4 Planning Your Research Project 74 CHAPTER 5 Writing the Research Proposal 116 PART III Quantitative Research ChAPTER 6 Descriptive Research 136 CHAPTER 7 Experimental, Quasi-Experimental, and EX Post Facto Designs 178 CHAPTER 8 Analyzing Quantitative data 211 PART V Qualitative Research ChAPtER 9 Qualitative Research Methods 251 CHAPTER 10 Historical Research ,278 CHAPTER 11 Analyzing Qualitative Data Q PART V Mixed-Methods Research CHAPTER 12 Mixed-Methods Designs 311 PART VI Research Reports CHAPTER 13 Planning and Preparing a Final Research Report 329 Appendices Appendix a Using a Spreadsheet: Microsoft Excel 354 Appendix B Using SPSS ,,,361 Glossary ■■ ,367 References Index 1日 378 A01 ORMR1 322 11 SE FM. indd E/8141:57AM Contents Prefaceⅲi Acknowledgments vi paRt The fundamentals Chapter 1 The Nature and Tools of research What Rcscarch is not 1 What Research is 2 Philosophical Assumptions Underlying Research Methodologies 7 Tools of rcscarch 8 The Library and Its Resources 9 USING TECHNOLOGY Computer Technology 9 Measurement 9 Statistics 11 Language 1I PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Communicating Effectively Through Writing 13 GUIDELINES: Writing to Communicate 14 USING TECHNOLOGY GUIDELINES: USing the Tools in Word Proccssing Softwarc 15 The Human Mind 17 Critical Thinking 17 Deductive Logic 18 inductive Reasoning 19 Thcory Building 21 USING TECHNOLOGY Collaboration with Other Minds 22 Reflect n ne thy research 22 Exploring Research in Your Field 24 PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Identifying Important Tools r Discipline 2 CHECKLIST: Interviewing an Expert Researcher 25 For Further reading 25 A01 ORMR1 322 11 SE FM. indd 8 E/8141:57AM
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