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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Landau. sabine A handhook of statistical analyses using SPsS/ Sabine, I andau, Brian s. Everitt Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 1-58488-369-3(alk. paper 1. SPSS( Computer nle). 2. Social sciences-Stalistical Imethods--CuInpuler prugralls. 3 Social sciences--Statistical methods--Data processing. I. Everitt, Brian S. Il. Title HA32E932003 519.50285dc22 2003058474 This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with perImission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assumc responsibility for the validity of all matcrials or for thc conscqucnccs of thcir usc Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher by any information storage or or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or Thc consent of CRC Press LLC docs not cxtcnd to copying for gcncral distribution, for promotion, fo crcating ncw works, or for resale. Spccific permission must bc obtaincd in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.w. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431 Trademark Notice: Product or corporatc namcs may be trademarks or rcgistcrcd trademarks, and arc used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe VisittheCrcPressWebsiteatwww.crcpress.com o 2004 by Chapman Hall/CrC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 1-58488-369-3 Library of Congress Card Number 2003058474 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 456789 0 Printed on acid-free paper c 2004 by Chapman Hall/CRC Press LLC Preface SPSS, standing for Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, is a powerful user-friendly software package for the manipulation and statistical analysis of data. The package is particularly useful for students and researchers in psychology, sociology, psychiatry, and other behavioral sciences, contain ing as it does an extensive range of both univariate and multivariate procedures much used in these disciplines. Our aim in this handbook is to give brief and straightforward descriptions of how to conduct a range of statistical analyses using the latest version of SPSs, SPSs 11. Each chapter deals with a different type of analytical procedure applied to one or more data sets primarily (although not exclusively) from the social and behav ioral arcas. Although wc concentrate largcly on how to use spss to get results and on how to correctly interpret these results, the basic theoretical background of many of the techniques used is also described in separate boxes. When more advanced procedures are used, readers are referred to other sources for details. Many of the boxes contain a few mathematical formulae, but by separating this material from the body of the text, we hope that even readers who have limited mathematical background will still be able to undertake appropriate analyses of their data The text is not intended in any way to be an introduction to statistics and. indeed. we assume that most readers will have attended at least one statistics course and will be relatively familiar with concepts such as linear regression, correlation, significance tests, and simple analysis of variance Our hope is that researchers and students with such a background will find this book a relatively self-contained means of using SPSs to analyze their data correctl Each chaptcr cnds with a number of cxcrciscs, somc relating to the data sets introduced in the chapter and others introducing further data sets. Working through these exercises will develop both SPSS and statistical skills. Answers to most of the exercises in the text are provided at c 2004 by Chapman Hall/CRC Press LLC http://www.iop.kclac.uk/iop/departments/biocomp/spssbook.shtml The majority of data sets used in the book can be found at the same site We are grateful to Ms. Harriet Meteyard for her usual excellent word proccssing and ovcrall support during the writing of this book Sabine landau and brian everit London, july 2003 c 2004 by Chapman Hall/CRC Press LLC Distributors The distributor for SPSS in the United Kingdom is SPSS U.K. Ltd 1st Floor Su. Andrew's House. West street Woking Surrey, Unitcd Kingdom GU21 6EB Tel.08453450935 FAX01483719290 EMail sales@spss cO uk In the United States, the distributor is 233 S. Wacker Drive, 1 th floor Chicago, IL 60606-6307 Tel.1(800)543-2185 HAX1(800)841-0064 Emailsales@spss.com c 2004 by Chapman Hall/CRC Press LLC Contents Distribute 1 A Brief Introduction to SPSS 1.1 Introdu ting hcl 1.3. 1 The Data View Spreadsheet 1.3.2 The Variable View Spreadshee 1.1 Storing and Retrieving Data Files 1.5.1 Data File handli 1.5.2 Generating New variables 1.5.3 Running Sta aI pr 1.54C cting Graphi spl 1.6 The 1.7 The Chart editor 1. 8 Programming in SPsS 2 Data Description and Simple Inference for Continuous Data: The Lifespans of Rats and Ages at Marriage in the U.S 2.1 Description of Data 2.2 Methods of Analysis 2.3 Analysis Using SPss 2.3. 1 Lifespans of Rats 2.3.2 I husbands and Wives 2.4 Exercises 2. 4. 1 Guessing the Width of a lecture Hall 2.4.2 More on Lifespans of Rats: Significance Tests for Model Assumptions 2.4.3 Motor Vehicle Theft in the U.S 2.4.4 Anorexia Nervosa Therapy 2.4.5 More on Husbands and Wives: Exact Nonparametric Tests c 2004 by Chapman Hall/CRC Press LLC 3 Simple Inference for Categorical Data: From Belief in the afterlife to the death penalty and race 3.1De 3.2 Methods of Analysis 3.3 Analysis Using SPSS 3.3.1 Husbands and Wives revisited 3.3.2 Lifespans of Rats Revisited 3.3.3 Belief in the afterlife 3.3.4 Incidence of Suicidal Feelings 3.3.5 Oral Contraceptive Use and Blood Clot 3.3.6 Alcohol and Infant Malformation 3.3.7 Death Penalty Verdicts 3.4 Exercises 3.4.1 Dcpcrsonalization and Rccovcry from Dcprcssion 3.4.2 Drug Treatment of Psychiatric Patients: Exact Tests for Two-Way Classifications 3.4.3 Tics and gende 3.4.4 Hair Color and Eye Color 4 Multiple Linear Regression: Temperatures in America and Cleaning Cars 4. 1 Description of Data 4.2 Multiple Linear Regression 4.3 Analysis Using SPSS ±31 Cleaning Cars 4.3.2 Temperatures in America 4.4 Exercises 4 4.1 Air pollution in the u.s 4.4.2 Body Fat 4.4.3 More on Cleaning Cars: Influence Diagnostics 5 Analysis of Variance I: One-Way Designs; Fecundity of Fruit Flies, Finger Tapping, and Female Social Skills 5.1 Description of Data 5.2 Analysis of V 5.3 Analysis Using SPSS 5.3.1 Fecundity of Fruit Flic 5.3.2 Finger Tapping and Caffeine Consumption 5.3.3 Social Skills of Females 5.4 Exercises 5.4.1 Cortisol Levels in Psychotics: Kruskal-Wallis Test 5.4.2 Cycling and Knee-Joint Angles 5.4.3 More on Female Social Skills: Informal Assessment of MANOVA ASSUmptions c 2004 by Chapman Hall/CRC Press LLC 6 Analysis of Variance II: Factorial Designs; Does Marijuana Slow You Down? and do Slimming Clinics Work? 6.1De of d 6.2 Analysis of Variance 6.3 Analysis Using SPSS 6.3.1 Effects of Marijuana Use 6.3.2 Slimming Clin 6.4 Exercises 6. 4.1 Headache Treatments 6.4.2 Biofeedback and Hypertension 6.4.3 Cleaning Cars Revisited: Analysis of Covariance 6.4.4 More on Slimming Clinics 7 Analysis of Repeated Measures I: Analysis of variance Type Models; Field Dependence and a Reverse Stroop Task 7. 1 Description of Data 7.2 Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance 7.3 Analysis Using SPSS 7. Exercises 7.4.1 More on the Reverse Stroop Task 7.4.2 Visual Acuity data 7.4.3 Blood Glucose Levels 8 Analysis of Repeated Measures II: Linear Mixed Effects Models; Computer Delivery of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy 8.1 Description of Data 8.2 Linear Mixed Effects models 8.3 Analysis Using SPSS 8.4 Exercises 8.4.1 Salsolinol Levels and Alcohol Dependency 8.4.2 Estrogen Treatment for Post-Natal Depression Beating th g he blues": Checking the model for g the Correlation Structure Logistic Regression: Who Survived the Sinking of the itanic? 9. 1 Descri 9.2 ic re 9.3 Analysis [sing SPSS 9.4 Exercises 9.4.1 More on the Titanic Survivor Data 9.4.2 GHQ Scores and Psychiatric Diagnosis 9.4.3 Death Penalty Verdicts Revisited c 2004 by Chapman Hall/CRC Press LLC 10 Survival Analysis: Sexual Milestones in Women and Field Dependency of Child 10.1 Desc of data 10.2 Survival Analysis and Cox's Regression 10.3 Analysis Using 10.3. 1 Sexual Milestone Times 10.3.2 WISC Task Comple 10.4 Exercise 10.4.1 Gastric Can 10.4.2 Heroin Addicts 10.4.3 More on Sexual Milestones of Females 11 Principal Component Analysis and Factor Analysis Crime in the u.s. and aids patients' evaluations of Their clinicians 11. 1 Description of Data 11.2 Principal Component and Factor Analysis 11.2.1 Principal Component Analysis 11.2.2 Factor Analysis 11.2.3 Factor Analysis and Principal components Compared 11.3 Analysis Using SPSS 11.3. 1 Crime in the U.S 11.3.2 AIDS Patients' Evaluations of Their Clin 11.4 Exercises 11.4.1 Air Pollution in the U.S 11.4.2 More on aids Patients' Evaluations of their Clinicians Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis 12 Classification: Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Function Analysis: Tibetan skulls 12. 1 Description of Data 12.2 Classification: Discrimination and Clustering 12.3 Analysis Using SPSS 12.3. 1 Tibetan Skulls: Deriving a Classification Rule 12.3.2 Tibetan Skulls: Uncovering Groups 12.4 Exercises 12.4.1 Sudden Infant Dcath Syndromc(SIDS) 12.44.2 Nutrients in Food data 12.4.3 More on Tibetan Skulls References c 2004 by Chapman Hall/CRC Press LLC

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