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Analysis and Design of RF and Digital Systems Using Keysight SystemVue
Contents General Introduction System∨ue 1, 888 2. Scope Objectives Chapter 1: SystemVue Integrated Simulators 1.1. Introduction 1.2. Traditional Simulation Techniques 9999 1.3. Behavioral Modeling 1.3.1 Data flow simulator 10 1.3.2. Spectrasys…… 122 1.3.3. WhatIS Frequency Planner 155 1.3. 4. Parameter Sweep .15 . 5. Behavioral Optimization 177 1. 4. Summary Chapter 2: RE System Design Basics 20 2.1 Introduction 20 2. 2. Transceiver Design 2.3. Receiver Architectures 21 2.3.1. Super-Heterodyne Receivers 222 2.3.2. LOW-IF Receivers 222 2.3.3. Direct-Conversion Receivers 232 2.3.4. Sub-Sampling Receivers 233 2.3.5. Receiver Architecture benchmark 23 2.4. System-Level Considerations 244 2.4.1. Figures-of-Merit 244 2.4.2. Range 2. 4.3. Link Budget .255 2.4.4. Sensitivity and Selectivity 2.4.5. Image rejection aiaaaaaaaaia a“ 287 2.4. 6. Phase noise 288 2.4.7.DCO仟set… “1·1. 2. 5. Nonlinear behavior of rE Systems 299 2.5.1 Intermodulation distortion 2.5.2. Noise Figure 30 2.5.3. In-Band and out-of-Band Interferers and blockers 31 2.5.4. Adjacent Channels 31 2.5.5. Gain compression aaaaaa 32 2.5.6. Dynamic Range 344 2.6. Transceiver Design Trade-Offs ∴355 2.6. 1. Signal-to-Noise Ratio 355 2.6.2. Frequency Planning 355 2.7. Basic RF Transceiver Building Blocks…… 366 2.7.1 Antenna 377 2.7.2 Amplifier(PowerLow-Noise) 377 2.7.3. Filter.…… 377 2.7.4. Duplex 388 2.7.5 Mixer 388 2.7.6. Local oscillator 399 2.7.7. Detector 399 2.7.8. Analog-to-Digital Conversion 399 2.8. Summary 40 Chapter 3: Designing RF Systems Using SystemVue 41 Case Study: Long-Term Evolution(LTE) Front-End Design 3.1. Introduction 41 3. 2. Highlights about Design Methodologies and Approaches 3.2.1 Common Design Approaches 3. 2.2. Overview of System-Level Modeling 432 3.3. Case Study: LTE Tri-Band Receiver Design .444 3.3.1. LTE Overview 454 3.3.2. Receiver Specifications and Design a“ 455 3.4. Summary 62 Chapter 4: Introduction to Digital Communications .4 4,1. ntroduction 64 4.2. Transmitter 65 3. Receiver 65 4, 4. Channel 65 4,5. Other considerations .65 Chapter 5: ransmitter Design aaaaaa .67 5.1. Transmitter basics .67 5.2. Input data 69 5.3. Encoding 70 5. 4. Mapping 5.5. Pulse Shape Filtering 72 5.6. I/Q Modulation 96 5. 7. Analyzing the results Chapter 6: Receiver Design 82 6.1. Receiver basics 82 6.2 Receiver subnetwork overview 85 6.3. Demodulator 87 6.4. Matched Filtering 88 6.5. Synchronization 88 6.6. Phase and Timing error correction 91 6.7. Frequency Error Correction .93 6. 8. Channel estimation 97 69. Demapping… 97 6.10. Code correction Chapter z: System Level Modeling………… .99 7.1. BER .9 7. 2. Cross Domain simulation 102 73. HDL Generation 104 Chapter 8: OFDM Transmitter a“ 108 8.1 Introduction 108 8. 2. OFDM Frame Structure “1·1. 8. 3. OFDM Payload 112 8. 4. Pilot signals 113 8.5. Frequency-to-Time Domain 114 Chapter 9: Spread Spectrum CDMA Tutorial 118 9. 1. ntroduction .118 9. 2. Lab ]: Bit generation pattern aaaaaa 18 93.Lab2: Mapping… 125 9. 4. Lab 3 Walsh code 128 9.5. Lab 4: Filter Design 131 9.6. Lab 5: Modulation 133 9.7. Lab 6: RE Link 135 9. 8. Lab 7: Step 7 Demodulation 139 9.9. Lab 8: Completed System 144 9.10. Conclusion 152 9. 11 Appendix 153 References 154 Acronyms and Abbreviations 3G Third-Generation 3GPP Third-Generation Partnership Project ACPr Adiacent Channel Power Ratio ADS Advanced Design System AWGn Additive White Gaussian Noise ber Bit Error rate CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor cnr Carrier-to-Noise ratio CPU Central Processing Unit CW Continuous Wave Dc Direct Current DR Dynamic Range DSP Digital Signal Processing E-UTRa EvoLved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access EVM Error Vector Magnitude FDD Frequency Division Duplex FSPL Free-Space Path LOss G Gain HB Harmonic Balance HDL Hardware Description Language IF Intermediate Frequency IMD Intermodulation Distortion IP Intellectual Property Lo Local oscillator LOS Line-of-Sight TE Long term Evolution L g MDs Minimum Discernible Signal MIMo Multiple Input Multiple Output NF Noise Figure OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple access PldB 1-dB Compression Point PLL Phase-Locked Loop PRB Physical Resource Blocks QPSK Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying RE Radio-「 reque SAE System Architecture Evolu SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Mutiple Access SDF Synch Data Flow SINAD Signal-to-Noise and distortion ratio lso Simple Input simple output SNr Signal-to-Noise Ratio(alSo S/N) SP Scattering Parameters SPARCA Spectral Propagation and root Cause Analysis ta Transient analysis IDD Time Division Duplex THd Total harmonic Distortion TOI Third-Order Intercept Point(also IP3 UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System vco Voltage-Controlled Oscillat VSWR Voltage Standing Wave Ratio ⅩPX- Parameters* General Introduction System Vue stem Vue is a focused EDA environment for electronic system-level(ESL) design that allows system architects and algorithm developers to innovate the physical layer (PHY)of next- generation wireless and aerospace/defense communications systems. It provides unique value to RF, DSP and FPGA/ASIC implementers who rely on both RF and digital signal processing to deliver the full value of their hardware platforms SystemVue replaces general-purpose analog, digital and math environments by offering a dedicated playform for ES- design and signal processing realization. SystemVuespeaks RF, "cuts PHY development and verification time in half, and connects to your mainstream eDa flow FormoreinformationaboutSystemvue,pleasevisitwww.keysight.com/find/eesof-systemvue 2. Scope This primer is intended to highlight the system-level simulation techniques and paradigms included in the Keysight Technologies System Vue software package Chapters 1-3 focus on how to use this software to architect RF systems, as well as how to model RF blocks. Chapters 4-8 delve into the basics of digital communication and provide an introduction into the theory and structure of a digital radio system 3. Objectives earn how Keysight simulators work for RF system-level modeling and begin to document this operation with a specific focus on how these simulators can be used for architecting rF systems 2. Learn about and document Keysight's collection of RF models, capturing their ranges of operation, support for linear and nonlinear simulation modes, support for noise, etc 3. Propose a recommended methodology to design RF systems using Keysight Systeme 4. Develop some applications ot RF modeling for emerging wireless and aerospace/detense earn the basics of digital communications and the theory and structure of a typical digital radio system 6. Construct the basic components of a digital radio system using SystemVue and investigate typical design considerations 7. Simulate and analyze results from SystemVue simulations of your digital communIcation components Chapter 1: SystemVue Integrated Simulators 1.1. Introduction Keysight integrated design environments like Advanced Design System (ADS)and Genesys mostly implement the traditional linear and nonlinear simulation techniques for RF design. These techniques do not cover all the behavioral modeling aspects of digital and RF systems. To complete this set of design tools, SystemVue was created. SystemVue is leading-edge system Level design and simulation software developed to support high-level architecting of RF and baseband systems. it includes various simulation technologies covering the baseband and re fields and operating in both frequency and time domains. SystemVue includes the Data Flow Simulator and Spectrasys simulation cores. It also includes a unique tool for IF frequency planning called the WhatlF frequency planner (also provided in ADS and Genesys 1.2. Traditional Simulation Techniques ADS allows for evaluation of an RF schematic using linear and nonlinear simulation techniques These techniques include, but are not limited to Scattering Parameters (SP)calculation: this kind of simulation evaluates the linear frequency response of an re device. It is based on the computation of the network scattering and noise parameters Harmonic Balance(HB): a frequency-domain simulation method used to calculate the steady-state response of a nonlinear re device. It computes, for example, metrics such as total harmonic distortion(THD)and third-order intercept (TOD) points Transient Analysis(TA): this is a time-domain simulation technique used to evaluate the re device response over time DC Circuit Analysis: this allows the computation of the dC properties of an rF circuit Most of these techniques are slow and do not allow the behavioral description of rF systems. For this reason, System Vue incorporates simulation techniques that are capable of fully describing the behavior of an RF system/device, as well as accurately evaluating its time- and frequency-domain parameters 1.3. Behavioral Modeling Keysight introduced a method of architecting and simulating RF systems that is based mainly on behavioral modeling. Keysight products such as SystemVue support this method through the Data Flow Simulator and Spectrasys simulation engines. Behavioral models support different types of spectrum. They are also flexible enough to support future spectrum. Furthermore, in Spectrasys each port is by default an input and output pin at the same time with regard to the type of spectrum used

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