现代控制工程, 第五版 (Modern Control Engineering, 5ed)-Katsuhiko Ogata, 高清版

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This book introduces important concepts in the analysis and design of control systems. Readers will find it to be a clear and understandable textbook for control system courses at colleges and universities. It is written for senior electrical, mechanical, aerospace, or chemical engineering students. The reader is expected to have fulfilled the following prerequisites: introductory courses on differential equations, Laplace transforms, vectormatrix analysis, circuit analysis, mechanics, and introductory thermodynamics. The main revisions made in this edition are as follows: • The use of MATLAB for obtaining responses of control systems to various inputs has been increased. • The usefulness of the computational optimization approach with MATLAB has been demonstrated. • New example problems have been added throughout the book. • Materials in the previous edition that are of secondary importance have been deleted in order to provide space for more important subjects. Signal flow graphs were dropped from the book. A chapter on Laplace transform was deleted. Instead, Laplace transform tables, and partial-fraction expansion with MATLAB are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. • A short summary of vector-matrix analysis is presented in Appendix C; this will help the reader to find the inverses of n x n matrices that may be involved in the analysis and design of control systems.
Contents Preface Chapter 1 Introduction to Control Systems 1-1 Introduction 1 1-2 ExaMples of Control Systems 4 1-3 Closed-Loop Control Versus Open- Loop Control 1-4 Design and compensation of Control systems 1-5 Outline of the book 10 Chapter 2 Mathematical Modeling of Control Systems 13 2-1 Introduction 13 2-2 Transfer Function and Impulse-Response Function 15 2-3 Automatic Control Systems 17 2-4 Modeling in State Space 29 2-5 State-Space Representation of Scalar Differential Equation systems 2-6 Transformation of mathematical models with matlab 39 Ill 2-7 Linearization of nonlinear mathematical models 43 Example Problems and Solutions 46 Problems 60 Chapter 3 Mathematical Modeling of Mechanical systems and electrical systems 63 3-1 Introduction 63 3-2 Mathematical Modeling of Mechanical Systems 63 3-3 Mathematical Modeling of Electrical Systems 72 Example problems and solutions 86 Problems 97 Chapter 4 Mathematical Modeling of Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems 100 4-1 Introduction 100 4-2 Liquid-Level Systems 101 4-3 Pneumatic Systems 106 4-4 Hydraulic systems 123 4-5 Thermal Systems 136 Example problems and solutions 140 Problems 152 Chapter 5 Transient and Steady-State Response Analyses 159 5-1 Introduction 159 -2 First-Order Systems 161 5-3 Second-Order Systems 164 5-4 Higher-Order Systems 179 5-5 Transient-Response analysis with MATLAB 183 -6 Routh's stability criterion 212 5-7 Effects of Integral and Derivative Control Actions on System performance 218 5-8 Steady-State Errors in Unity-Feedback Control Systems 225 Example Problems and Solutions 231 Problems 263 Content Chapter 6 Control Systems Analysis and design by the root-Locus Method 269 6-1 Introduction 269 6-2 Root-Locus Plots 270 6-3 Plotting Root Loci with MATLAB 290 6- Root-Locus Plots of Positive Feedback Systems 303 6-5 Root-Locus Approach to Control-Systems Design 308 6-6 Lead Compensation 311 6-7 Lag Compensation 321 6-8 Lag-Lead Compensation 330 6-9 Parallel Compensation 342 Example Problems and Solutions 347 Problem 394 Chapter 7 Control Systems Analysis and Design by the Frequency-Response Method 398 7-1 Introduction 398 7-2 Bode Diagrams 403 7-3 Polar Plots 427 7-4 Log- Magnitude-versus-Phase Plots 443 7-5 Nyquist Stabilily Criterion 445 7-6 Stability Analysis 454 7-7 Relative Stability analysis 7-8 Closed-Loop Frequency Response of Unity-Feedback Systems 477 7-9 Experimental Determination of Transter Functions 486 7-10 Control Systems design by Frequency-Response approach 491 7-11 Lead Compensation 493 7-12 Lag Compensation 502 7-13 Lag-Lead Compensation 511 Example Problems and Solutions 521 Problems 561 Chapter 8 PID Controllers and Modified PID Controllers 567 8-1 Introduction 567 8-2 Ziegler-Nichols Rules for Tuning PID Controllers 568 Contents 8-3 Design of PID Controllers with Frequency-Response Approach 577 8-4 Design of PID Controllers with Computational Optimiz ation Approach 583 8-5 Modifications of Pid Control schemes 590 8-6 Two-Degrees-of-Freedom Control 592 8-7 Zero-Placement Approach to Improve response Characteristics 595 Example problems and solutions 614 Problems 641 Chapter 9 Control Systems Analysis in State Space 648 9-1 Introduction 648 9-2 State-Space Representations of fransfer-Function Systems 649 9-3 Transformation of System Models with MATLab 656 9-4 Solving the Time-Invariant State Equation 9-5 Some Useful Results in Vector-Matrix Analysis 668 9-6 Controllability 675 9-7 Observability 682 Example problems and solutions 688 Problems 720 Chapter 10 Control Systems Design in State Space 722 10-1 Introduction 722 10-2 Pole placement 723 10-3 Solving Pole-Placement Problems with MATLAB 735 10-4 Design of servo Systems 739 10-5 Statc Observers 751 10-6 Design of Regulator Systems with Observers 778 10-7 Design of Control Systems with Observers 786 10-8 Quadratic Optimal Regulator Systems 793 10-9 Robust Control systems 806 Example Problems and Solutions 817 Problems 855 Content Appendix A Laplace Transform Tables 859 Appendix b Partial-Fraction Expansion 867 Appendix C Vector-Matrix Algebra 874 References 882 Inde 86 Contents This page intentionally left blank P reface This book introduces important concepts in the analysis and design of control systems Readers will find it to be a clear and understandable textbook for control system courses at colleges and universities. It is written for senior electrical, mechanical, aerospace,or chemical engineering students. The reader is expected to have fulfilled the following prerequisites: introductory courses on differential equations, Laplace transforms, vector- matrix analysis, circuit analysis, mechanics, and introductory thermodynamics The main revisions made in this edition are as follows The use of mATLAb for obtaining responses of control systems to various inputs has been increased The usefulness of the computational optimization approach with MATLAB has been demonstrated New example problems have been added throughout the book Materials in the previous edition that are of secondary importance have been deleted in order to provide space for more important subjects. Signal flow graphs were dropped from the book. A chapter on Laplace transform was deleted. Instead, Laplace transform tables, and partial-fraction expansion with matlaB are pre sented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively a short summary of vector-matrix analysis is presented in Appendix C; this will help the reader to find the inverses of n x n matrices that may be involved in the analy sis and design of control systems This edition of Modern Control Engineering is organized into ten chapters. The outlinc of this book is as follows: Chapter 1 presents an introduction to control systems. Chapter 2 IX deals with mathemalical modeling of control systems. A linearization technique for non inear mathematical models is presented in this chapter chapter 3 derives mathematical models of mechanical systems and electrical systems. Chapter 4 discusses mathematical modeling of fluid systems(such as liquid-level systems, pneumatic systems, and hydraulic systems)and thermal systems Chapter 5 treats transient response and steady-state analyses of control systems MATLAB is used extensively for obtaining transient response curves. Routh's stability criterion is presented for stability analysis of control systems. Hurwitz stability criterion is also presented Chapter 6 discusses the root-locus analysis and design of control systems, including positive feedback systems and conditionally stable systems Plotting root loci with mat. LAB is discussed in detail. Design of lead, lag, and lag-lead compensators with the root- locus method is included Chapter 7 treats the frequency-response analysis and design of control systems. The Nyquist stability criterion is presented in an easily understandable manner. The Bode di agram approach to the design of lead, lag, and lag-lead compensators is discussed Chapter 8 deals with basic and modified PID controllers. Computational approaches for obtaining optimal parameter values for PID controllers are discussed in detail, par- ticularly with respect to satisfying requirements for step-response characteristics lo. chapter 9 treats basic analyses of control systems in state space. Concepts of con- ollability and observability are discussed in detail Chapter 10 deals with control systems design in state space. The discussions include pole placement, state observers, and quadratic optimal control. An introductory dis- cussion of robust control systems is presented at the end of Chapter 10 The book has been arranged toward facilitating the student's gradual understanding of control theory. Highly mathematical arguments are carefully avoided in the presen tation of the materials Statement proofs are provided whenever they contribute to the understanding of the subject matter presented Special effort has been made to provide example problems at strategic points so that the reader will have a clear understanding of the subject matter discussed. In addition, a number of solved problems(A-problems) are provided at the end of each chapter, except Chapter 1. The reader is encouraged to study all such solved problems carefully this will allow the reader to obtain a deeper understanding of the topics discussed In addition, many problems(without solutions) are provided at the end of each chapter, except Chapter 1. The unsolved problems(B-problems) may be used as homework or quiz probler ms If this book is used as a text for a semester course(with 56 or so lecture hours), a good portion of the material may be covered by skipping certain subjects. Because of the abundance of example problems and solved problems(a-problems)that might answer many possible questions that the reader might have, this book can also serve as a self- study book for practicing engineers who wish to study basic control theories I would like to thank the following reviewers for this edition of the book: Mark Camp bell, Cornell University; Ilenry Sodano, Arizona State University; and Atul G. Kelkar lowa State University. Finally, I wish to offer my deep appreciation to Ms Alice Dworkin Associate Editor, Mr Scott Disanno, Senior Managing editor, and all the people in- volved in this publishing projcct, for the speedy yct superb production of this book Katsuhiko ogata

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