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Applied_Speech_and_Audio_Processing_With_MATLAB_Examples.Ian_McLoughlin.Cambridge.2009 语音处理的入门书籍;有matlab代码和实例,全英文
Applied Speech and Audio Processing: With MATLAB( Examples Applied speech and audio processing is a MATLAB-based, one-stop resource that blends speech and hearing research in describing the key techniques of speech and audio processing This practically orientated text provides matlab examples throughout to illustrate the concepts discussed and to give the reader hands- on experience with important tech- niques. Chapters on basic audio processing and the characteristics of speech and hearing lay the foundations of speech signal processing, which are built upon in subsequent sections explaining audio handling, coding, compression and analysis techniques. The final chapter explores a number of advanced topics that use these techniques, including psychoacoustic modelling, a subject which underpins MP3 and related audio formats With its hands-on nature and numerous MATLAB examples, this book is ideal for graduate students and practitioners working with speech or audio systems lan McLoughlin is an Associate Professor in the School of Computer Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Over the past 20 years he has worked for industry, government and academia across three continents. His publications and patents cover speech processing for intelligibility, compression, detection and interpretation hearing models for intelligibility in English and Mandarin Chinese, and psychoacousti methods for audio steganography Applied Speech and Audio processing With MATLABe Examples AN MCLOUGHLIN School of Computer Engineering Nanyang Technological University Singapore CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo Cambridge university press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York Informationonthistitlewww.cambridgeorg/9780521519540 C Cambridge university press 2009 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press First published in print format 2009 ISBN13978-0-511-516542 ebook(EBL) ISBN-139780-521-51954-0 hardback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain accurate or appropriate Contents Pre eface page vil Acknowledgements Introduction 1.1 Digital audio 1.2 Capturing and converting sound 1.3 Sampling 1. 4 Summary Basic audio processing 23577 2. 1 Handling audio in matlaB 2.2 Normalisation 2. 3 Audio processing 2. 4 Segmentation 2.5 Analysis window sizin 24 2.6 Visualisation 2 2.7 Sound generation 30 2.8 Summary 34 Speech peech production 3.2 Characteristics of speech 41 3.3 Speech understanding 47 3.4 Summar 54 Hearing 59 4.1 Physical processes 4.2 Psychoacoustics 4.3 Amplitude and frequency models 4.4 Psychoacoustic processing 4.5 Auditory scene analysis 4.6 Summary Contents Speech communications 5.1 Quantisation 5.2 Parameterisation 95 5.3 Pitch models 5.4 Analysis-by-synthesis 122 5.5 Summary 130 Audio analysis 135 6. 1 Analysis toolkit 136 6.2 Speech analysis and classification 148 6.3 Analysis of other signals 151 6.4 Higher order statistics 155 6.5 Summary 157 Advanced topics 160 7. Psychoacoustic modellin 160 7.2 Perceptual weightin 168 7.3 Speaker classification 7.4 Language classification 172 7.5 Speech recognition 174 7.6 Speech synthesis 7.7 Stereo encoding 184 7.8 Formant strengthening and steering 189 7.9 Voice and pitch changer 193 7.10 Summary 198 Index 202 Preface Speech and hearing are closely linked human abilities. It could be said that human speech is optimised toward the frequency ranges that we hear best, or perhaps our hearing is optimised around the frequencies used for speaking However whichever way we present the argument, it should be clear to an engineer working with speech transmission and processing systems that aspects of both speech and hearing must often be considered together in the field of vocal communications. However, both hearing and speech remain complex subjects in their own right. Hearing particularly so In recent years it has become popular to discuss psychoacoustics in textbooks on both hearing and speech. Psychoacoustics is a term that links the words psycho and acoustics together, and although it sounds like a description of an auditory-challenged serial killer, actually describes the way the mind processes sound. In particular, it is used to highlight the fact that humans do not always perceive sound in the straightforward ways that knowledge of the physical characteristics of the sound would suggest There was a time when use of this word at a conference would boast of advanced knowledge, and familiarity with cutting-edge terminology, especially when it could roll off the tongue naturally. I would imagine speakers, on the night before their keynote address, standing before the mirror in their hotel rooms practising saying the word fluently. However these days it is used far too commonly, to describe any aspect of hearing that is processed nonlinearly by the brain. It was a great temptation to use the word in the title of this book The human speech process, while more clearly understood than the hearing process, maintains its own subtleties and difficulties, not least through the profusion of human languages, voices, inflexions, accents and speaking patterns. Speech is an imperfect auditory communication system linking the meaning wishing to be expressed in one brain, to the meaning being imparted in another brain. In the speaker's brain, the meaning is encoded into a collection of phonemes which are articulated through movements o several hundred separate muscles spread from the diaphragm through to the lips These produce sounds which travel through free air, may be encoded by something such as a telephone system, transmitted via a satellite in space half way around the world, and then recreated in a different environment to travel through free air again to the outer ears of a listener Sounds couple through the outer ear middle ear inner ear and finally enter the brain, on either side of the head a mixture of lower and higher brain functions then hopefully, recreate a meaning Preface It is little wonder, given the journey of meaning from one brain to another via mech anisms of speech and hearing, that we call for both processes to be considered together Thus, this book spans both speech and hearing, primarily in the context of the engineering of speech communications systems. However, in recognition of the dynamic research being undertaken in these fields, other areas are also drawn into our discussions: music perception of non-speech signals, auditory scene analysis, some unusual hearing effects and even analysis of birdsong are described It is sincerely hoped that through the discussions, and the examples, the reader will learn to enjoy the analysis and processing of speech and other sounds, and appreciate the joy of discovering the complexities of the human hearing system In orientation, this book is unashamedly practical. It does not labour long over complex proofs, nor over tedious background theory, which can readily be obtained elsewhere It does, wherever possible, provide practical and working examples using matlab to illustrate its points. This aims to encourage a culture of experimentation and practical enquiry in the reader and to build an enthusiasm for exploration and discovery readers wishing to delve deeper into any of the techniques described will find references to scientific papers provided in the text, and a bibliography for further reading following each chapter Although few good textbooks currently cover both speech and hearing, there are sev eral examples which should be mentioned at this point, along with several narrower texts. Firstly, the excellent books by Brian Moore of Cambridge University, covering the psychology of hearing, are both interesting and informative to anyone who is in terested in the human auditory system Several texts by eberhard Zwicker and Karl D Kryter are also excellent references, mainly related to hearing, although Zwicker does foray occasionally into the world of speech. For a signal processing focus, the extensive Gold and Morgan text, covering almost every aspect of speech and hearing, is a good reference Overview of the book In this book i attempt to cover both speech and hearing to a depth required by a fresh post- graduate student, or an industrial developer, embarking on speech or hearing research a basic background of digital signal processing is assumed: for example know ledge of the Fourier transform and some exposure to discrete digital filtering. This is not a signal processing text-it is a book that unveils aspects of the arcane world of speech and audio processing, and does so with MATLAB examples where possible. In the process, some of the more useful techniques in the toolkit of the audio and speech engineer will be presented The motivation for writing this book derives from the generations of students that I have trained in these fields, almost each of whom required me to cover these same steps in much the same order, year after year. Typical undergraduate courses in elec tronic and/or computer engineering, although they adequately provide the necessary foundational skills, generally fail to prepare graduates for work in the speech and audio

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