特征提取与图像处理第三版英文

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特征提取与图像处理,第三版,英文。 目前中文的是第二版,此是英文的第三版,修正了明显的错误,并且添加了一些新的知识,较实用
Feature extraction Image Processing for Computer vision Third edition Mark s. nixon Alberto s Aguado AMSTERDAM· BOSTON· HEIDELBERO· LONDON NEW YORK· OXFORD· PARIS· SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO· SINGAPORE· SYDNEY· TOKYO ELSEVIER Academic Press is an imprint of elsevier Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford, oX5 IGB, UK 4 Theobalds road. London wcix 8RR. UK first edition 2002 Reprinted 2004. 2005 Second edition 2008 Third edition 2012 Copyright C 2012 Professor Mark S. Nixon and Alberto S. Aguado. Published by Elsevier Ltd all rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek permission, further information about the publishers permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency, can be found at our websitewww.elsevier.com/permissions This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher(other than as may be noted herein) Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment ome necessary Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility To the fullest extent of the law neither the publisher nor the authors contributors or editors assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the library of Congress ISBN:978-0-123-96549-3 For information on all Academic Press publications visit our website at books. elsevier. com Printed and bound in the uK 21098765432 Forking together to grow libraries in developing countries www.elsevier.comwww.bookaid.orgiwww.sabre.org ELSEVIER BOOK AID International abre foundation Contents Preface CHAPTER Introduction 1.2 Human and computer vision 1.3 The human vision system...................4 1.3.1The 1.3.2 The neural system 1.3.3 Processing…….….….….….…….…….……….9y 1.4 Computer vision systems........ 12 1. 4.1 Cameras 14.2C 1. 4.3 Processing an image...... 17 1.5 Mathematical systems .19 1.5.1 Mathematical tools …19 1.5.2 Hello matlab, hello images!...….….……………20 1. 5. 3 Hello mathcad! 1.6 Associated literature 30 1.6. 1 Journals, magazines and conferences .30 1. 6.2 Textbook 1. 6. 3 The Web 1. Conclusions 35 1.8 Reference 35 CHAPTER 2 Images, Sampling, and frequency Domain Processing 37 2.2 Image formation ∴138 2.3 The Fourier transform 24 The sampling criterion………………… 49 2.5 The discrete Fourier transform 2.5.1 1D transform 2.5.2 2D transform 57 2.6 Other properties of the Fourier transform 2.6.1 Shift invariance 2. 6.2 Rotat 65 2.6.3 Frequency scaling 66 2.6. 4 Superposition (linearity )..... 67 2.7 Transforms other than fourier 68 2.7.1 Discrete cosine transform Contents 2.7.2 Discrete Hartley transform 70 2.7.3 Introductory wavelets……… 71 2.7.4 Other transforms 78 2.8 Applications using frequency domain properties 78 2.9 Further reading…… 80 2.10 References… 81 CHaPTER 3 Basic Image Processing Operations....83 3.1 Overview 83 32 Histograms…… 84 3.3 Point operators 86 3.3.1 Basic point operations………………….86 3.3.2 Histogram normalization 3.3. 3 Histogram equalization 3.3.4 Thresholding………….……………….93 3.4 Group operation 3.4.1 Template convolution...... 3.4.2 Averaging operator 101 3.4.3 On different template size………....103 3.4.4 Gaussian averaging operator .104 3.4.5 More on averaging 107 3.5 Other statistical ope 109 3.5.1 Median filter 3.5.2 l12 3.5.3 Anisotropic diffusion 114 3.5.4 Force field transform .121 3.5.5 Comparison of statistical operators 122 3.6 Mathematical morphology 123 3.6.1 Morphological operators………124 3.6.2 Gray-level morphology 127 3.6.3 Gray-level erosion and dilation 128 3.6.4 Minkowski operators .130 3.7 Further reading .134 3.8 References 134 CHAPTER 4 Low-Level Feature Extraction (including edge detection) 137 4.1 Overview 138 4.2 Edge detection....................... 139 4.2. 1 First-order edge-detection operators 139 4.2.2 Second-order edge-detection operators 16l 4.2.3 Other edge-detection operators 170 4.2.4 Comparison of edge-detection operators 171 4.2.5 Further reading on edge detection 173 Contents 4.3 Phase congruency 173 4.4 Localized feature extraction 180 4.4. Detecting image curvature( corner extraction)……….180 4.4.2 Modern approaches: region/patch analysis 193 4.5 Describing image motion 199 4.5.1 Area-based approach 200 4.5.2 Differential approach………….………….……………204 4.5.3 Further reading on optical flow…………2l1 4.6 Further reading 212 4.7 References… CHAPTER 5 High-Level Feature EXtraction: Fixed Shape Matching 217 5.1 Overvie 218 5.2 Thresholding and subtraction ......220 53 Template matching… 5.3.1 Definition 222 5.3.2 Fourier transform implementation..........230 5.3.3 Discussion of template matching .. 234 5.4F e extraction by low-level features 235 5.4.1 Appearance- based approaches……………………235 5.4.2 Distrib based descript 238 5.5 Hough tr 5.5.1 Overview 24 5.5.2 Lines 243 5.5.3 hT for circles 250 5.5. 4 hT for ell 5.5.5 Parameter space decomposition…… 258 5.56G lized ht 271 5.5. 7 Other extensions to the ht 287 5.6 Further reading 288 5.7 References 289 CHAPTER 6 High-Level Feature Extraction: Deformable Shape analysis................293 6.1 Overview 293 6.2 Deformable shape analysis. .....................................................294 6.2. 1 Deformable templates 294 6.2. 2 Parts-based sh alysis 297 6.3 Active contours(snakes) 299 6.3.1 Basics 299 6.3.2 The greedy algorithm for snakes 301 Hi Contents 633 Complete(Kass) snake implementation.……… 6.3.4 Other snake approaches………… 313 6.3.5 Further snake developments 314 6.3.6 Geometric active contours (level-set-based appro 318 6.4 Shape skeletonization .............................................325 6.4.1 Distance transforms 325 64.2 Symmetry.………327 6.5 Flexible shape models--active shape and active appearance 334 6.6 Further reading 338 6.7 References….38 CHAPTER 7 object Description.............343 7.1 Overview 343 7.2 Boundary descriptions .345 7.2.1 Boundary and region 345 7.2.2 Chain code 346 7.2.3 Fourier descriptors 349 7. 3 Region descriptors 378 7.3. 1 Basic region descriptors.............378 7. 3.2 Moments 383 74 Further reading......….….….395 7.5 Refere 395 CHAPTER 8 Introduction to Texture Description Segmentation, and classification 399 8. 1 Overview .399 8.2 What is te 400 8.3 Texture descript 403 8.3.1 Performance requirements………… 403 8.3.2 approac 8.3.3 Statistical approaches 406 8.3.4 Combination approaches .409 8.3.5 Local binary patterns……………41ll 8.3.6 Other approaches……………4l7 8. 4 Classification 417 8.4.1 Distance measures 417 8.4.2 The k-nearest neighbor rule 424 8.4.3 Other classification approaches.... 428 8.5 Segmentation 429 86 Further reading… 1431 8.7 References 432 Contents CHAPTER 9 Moving Object Detection and Description....435 9.1 Overview 435 9.2 Moving object detection... 437 9.2.1 Basic 437 9.2.2 Modeling and adapting to the(static) background..442 9. 2.3 Background segmentation by thresholding ........447 9.2.4 Problems and advances................... 450 93 Tracking moving features……………… 451 9.3. 1 Tracking moving objects.....................451 9.3.2 Tracking by local search……… 9.3.3 Problems in tracking……………….…………455 9.3.4 Approaches to tracking………………455 9.3.5 Meanshift and Camshift 457 9.3.6 Recent approaches 472 9.4 Moving feature extraction and description 474 94. I Moving( biological) shape analysis.………….474 9.4.2 Detecting moving shapes by shape matching in image sequences..........................476 9.4.3 Moving shape description.………..4.80 9.5 Further reading 9.6 References 484 CHAPTER 10 Appendix 1: Camera Geometry Fundamentals..489 10.1 Image geometry………… 1489 10.2 Perspective camera........ 90 10.3 Perspective camera model 491 10.3. 1 Homogeneous coordinates and projective ge 491 10.3.2Pers e camera model analysis 496 10.3.3 Parameters of the perspective camera model..... 499 10. 4 Affi 500 10.4.1 Affine camera mode 501 10.4.2 Affine camera model and the perspective 10.4.3 Parameters of the affine camera moder projection…… ∴503 1.504 10.5 Weak perspective model...........505 10.6 Example of camera models.....507 10.7 Discussion 517 10. 8 References 517 11 2 Appendix 2: Least Squares Analysis CHAPTER 11 A 519 e least squares criterion………….…….…………….519 Curve fitting by least squares..........521 Contents CHAPTER 12 Appendix 3: Principal Components Analysis..525 12.1 Principal components analysis 525 12.2Data.526 12.3 Covariance 526 12.4 Covariance matrix .529 12.5 Data transformation 530 12.6 Inverse transformation 531 12.7 Eigenprobl 532 12.8 Solving the eigenproblem.................533 12.9 PCA method summary 1210 Example…… 534 12.11 References CHAPTER 13 Appendix 4: Color Images 541 13. 1 Color images 542 13.2 Tristimulus theory.................542 13. 3 Color models 13.3. 1 The colorimetric equation. .........544 13.3.2 Luminosity function .. 545 13.3.3 Perception based color models: the CIE RGB and CIe Xyz 547 13.3.4 Uniform color spaces: CIE LUV and CIE LAB. ....562 13.3.5 Additive and subtractive color models: rGB and cmr 568 13.3.6 Luminance and chrominance color model YUV,YIQ, and YCbCr………… 575 13.3.7 Perceptual color models:HSⅤ and hls….….583 13. 8 More color models 599 13. 4 References 600

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