电力系统 模拟仿真代码 学习 资料

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电力系统 模拟仿真代码 学习 资料 Power System Modelling and Scripting
Federico milano Power System Modelling and Scripting S pringer Dr. Federico milano ETSIl, University of Castilla-La Mancha 13071 Ciudad Real pain E-mail: Federico. Milano @uclmes ISSN1612-1287 e-ISSN1860-4676 ISBN978-3-642-136689 e-ISBN978-3-642-13669-6 DOI10.1007/978-3-642-13669-6 Springer London Dordrecht Heidelberg New York British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the british library Library of Congress Control Number: 2010928724 C Springer-Verlag London Limited 2010 part from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or re- view, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior per- mission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers. The use of registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made Cover Design: deblik, Berlin, Germany Printed on acid-free paper pringerispartofSpringerScience+businessMedia(www.springer.com) To Yolanda and alessandro T2deve,e入 ov av paper nv ye to pos tanxu a(pauoluavov atapov tOLOUtOV Plato, Sophist, 365-361 BC 2.1 We make ourselves pictures of facts 2.12 The picture is a model of reality 2.225 There is no picture which is a priori true Ludwig Wittgenstein, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, 1922 A D Preface History the book The first draft of these notes was born in the winter of 2002. at that time. I was a visiting scholar at the University of Waterloo. Originally, those notes were not intended as a book, but as a quick reference for not forgetting the models I was implementing for my research. After eight years, I am with Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha. During these years, the notes have been growing up little by little, ceaselessly. During the summer of 2009, I have reorganized the notes in the present book Justification of the Title Power system modelling and scripting is a quite general and ambitious title Of course, to embrace all existing aspects of power system modelling would lead to an encyclopedia. Thus, the book focuses on a subset of power system models based on the following assumptions: (i)devices are modelled as a set of nonlinear differential algebraic equations, (ii) all alternate-current devices are operating in three-phase balanced fundamental frequency, and (iii) the time frame of the dynamics of interest ranges from tenths to tens of seconds. These assumptions basically restrict the analysis to transient stability phenomena and generator controls. The modelling step is not self-sufficient. Mathematical models have to be translated into computer programming code in order to be analyzed, understood and experienced". It is an object of the book to provide a general framework for a power system analysis software tool and hints for filling up this framework with versatile programming code Objectives of the book This book is for all students and researchers that are looking for a quick reference on power system models or need some guidelines for starting the Preface challenging adventure of writing their own code. Thus, the objectives of this book are twofold The primary objective is to provide a selection of the most used device models ranging from static models for power flow, continuation power flow and optimal power flow analyses to as complete as possible dynamic electro mechanical models for small-signal stability analysis and time domain simula- tions. This selection includes classical devices(e. g, synchronous machines )as well as non-conventional distributed energy resources(e. g, wind turbines) static voltage dependent loads as well as emerging energy storage devices While describing each device, no matter if it is a well-known pv bus or a very specific pitch angle control for wind turbines, the focus is on the model hypotheses and on the implications of adopted simplifications The second objective is to provide a guide for organizing and translating mathematical models into computer programming code. The purpose is that he reader understands that there is always a gap between printed equations and software applications running on computers. Fortunately, this gap is not so huge and the book attempts to provide the methodological approach to fill it Choice of the Programming Language When dealing with programming issues, one has to face and answer a tricky question: which is the most adequate computer language for tackling power system analysis? Then, after deciding on the language, one already knows that in a decade that language will be inevitably obsolete and a newer, easier, classier language will be available. To avoid a quick obsolescence, the goal of the book is not to provide code, but rather to teach how to design, organize and eventually write it. Programming issues will be always the same, at least as far as power systems will be the way they are. Thus, the adopted language is not so important At the end of a careful one-year-long study, I finally opted for the Python programming language. This language is well documented on the Internet, is elegant and neat, is fully based on classes and provides efficient libraries for solving linear algebra, handling sparse matrices and producing publication quality figures. Last but not least, the Python interpreter is free and open source. These characteristics do not guarantee that Python will last forever but make it very appropriate for educational purposes Organization of the book The material included in this book is organized in a somewhat unorthodox way. Since the purpose is to concentrate on modelling, main power system analysis tools and basic programming concepts are introduced before describ ing the devices. The book is organized in five parts, as follows Preface XI Part I contains introductory concepts. Chapter 1 provides the motivation of the book, some philosophical foundations of the art of modelling physi cal systems and defines the general mathematical model used for describing the behavior of power systems. Chapter 2 introduces the structure and the features of a software package for power system analysis while Chapter 3 discusses on the concept of scripting applied to power system analysis. The latter chapter also attempts to provide general guidelines for thinking power systems analysis in terms of computer programming I hope that the results can be useful for Ph D. students that, at the very end, will be the only readers of this book that have time to implement their own software applications Part II introduces basic tools for power system analysis. The viewpoint used for describing these tools is as general as possible. Chapter 4 describes the power How analysis, Chapter 5 the continuation power flow, Chapter 6 he optimal power Hlow, Chapter 7 the small signal stability analysis, and Chapter 8 the time domain integration. Each topic is huge and, thus, only a very reduced selection of methods and algorithms is presented. The object to provide a starting point for further investigations as well as a basement on top of which the following part dedicated to device modelling can be built Part Ill is the barycentric and most extended part of the book. It embraces the most important families of power system devices in an as systematic and exhaustive way as possible. Chapter 9 provides an introduction to the ba sic mathematical aspects of a generic electrical device. Following Chapters from 10 to 20 describe static power How devices, transmission lines, static and regulating transformers, optimal power flow models, faults, protections measurement devices, non-conforming static and dynamic loads, synchronous and induction machines, primary frequency and voltage regulators and power system stabilizers, dc devices, ac-dc devices, FaCtS devices, and wind tur bines and other distributed energy resources Part iv discusses spare topics that are relevant for power system analysis but are seldom included in power system books. Chapter 21 introduces the variegated world of data formats and discusses the challenges for creating a common model for exchanging power system data. Chapter 22 discusses the advantages of the Unix-style command line approach versus graphica user interfaces. Chapter 22 also describes plotting utilities aimed to power system visualization ranging from conventional plots to advanced 2D and 3D temperature maps. Chapter 23 describes some relevant educational aspects of free and open source power system software packages Finally part v contains supporting material in form of appendices. Ap- pendix a provides a minimal introduction to the Python non-standard scien- tific libraries used in the book. The aim of appendix a is to make the book as self-contained as possible. Appendix B defines Python structures and classes that are used in the examples of the book. Appendix c discusses control dia- grams and hard limit models. Finally, Appendix d provides the power system data used in the example of previous chapters whereas Appendix e describes XII Preface the software requirements for working with the book as well as some useful links related to power system analysis style of the book The style used in the book is somewhat unconventional with respect to tradi- tional references about power system analysis. The will of merging together two worlds, namely power system modelling and computer programming for computational science, leads to the necessity of using a hybrid style that is unusual for both worlds. The major risk is perhaps to end up writing a soft- ware manual. To avoid that. I have tried to be as rigorous as possible and to make the examples based on computer code a supporting material rather than an essential part of the book, so that readers that despise computer code can skip it. I have also tried to apply the lesson of the Venikov's"The- ory of Similarity and Simulation"325: whenever possible, I have included analogies and similarities taken from any mathematical and scientific field The material is organized in several parts, each part in several chapters and each chapter in several sections and subsections. This fragmentation can remind Seneca's style arena sine calce(i.e, sand without concrete) and is a kind of deformation due to the habit of object-oriented programming However, this style is also dictated by the hope that in this way each topic can be easily found and fixed in mind For those interested in very technicalities, to write this book, I used LATEX 3 with some useful packages such as PSfrag for the fine adjusting of figures and the IEEE style for formatting the bibliography data base. Python 2.6.2 was used as main environment while modules CvXOPT 1.1.2 and NumPy 1.3 were used for linear algebra, sparse matrix and eigenvalue analysis Matplotlib 0.99 was used for generating simulation plots and Xfig 3.2.5 for drawing all other figures Acknowledgments There is a beautiful italian word that defines someone able to teach such that he changes someone else life and makes it irremediably better. This word is maestro. I have been lucky enough to have good ones: my grandfather Ce sare, my father Guido and my mother Silvana, Profs. Bruno Delfino, gio Battista Denegri and marco Invernizzi from Universita degli studi di gen ova, Prof Claudio Canizares from University of Waterloo and Prof. antonio Conejo from Universidad de Castilla-La M ancha Concluding remark While completing this preface, I realize that much material has been left out of the book. However, I hope that what is included will be enough to transmit

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