Cryptography

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Cryptography and network security
This page intentionally left blank SHANNONIR CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION William Stallings PEARSON Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle river Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Ta T OkyO SHANNONIR F or tricia never aull never boring the smartest and bravest person i know Editorial Director ECS: Marcia horton Permissions Supervisor: Michael Joyce Executive Editor: Tracy Johnson Permissions administrator: Jenell forschler Associate Editor: Carole Snyder Director, Image Asset Services: Annie Atherton Director of Marketing: Christy Lesko Manager, Visual Research: Karen Sanatar Marketing Manager: Yez Alayan Cover Photo:@ Valery sibrikov/Fotolia Director of Production: Erin Gregg Media Project Manager: Renata butera Managing Editor: Scott Disanno Full-Service Project Management: Shiny rajesh Associate Managing editor: robert engelhardt Integra Software Services Pvt Ltd Production Manager: Pat Brown Composition: Integra Software Services Pvt. Ltd Art Director: Jayne Conte Printer/Binder: Courier Westford Cover Designer: Bruce Kenselaar Cover Printer: Lehigh-Phoenix Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear in the Credits section in the end matter of this text Copyright o 2014, 2011, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc, All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc, Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290 Many of the designations by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data on file. 10987654321 PEARSON ISBN10:0-13-335469-5 ISBN13:978-0-13-335469-0 SHANNONIR CoNTENTS Notation Preface xiii Chapter 0 Guide for Readers and Instructors 1 0.1 Outline of This book 2 0.2 A Roadmap for readers and Instructors 3 0.3 Internet and Web resources 4 0.4 Chapter 1 over 7 Computer security concepts 9 2 The osi Security architecture 14 Security attacks 15 Security services 17 Security mechanisms 20 1.6 A Model for Network Security 22 1.7 Recommended Reading 24 1.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 25 PART ONE SYMMETRIC CIPHERS 27 Chapter 2 Classical Encryption Techniques 27 2.1 Symmetric cipher model 28 2.2 Substitution Techniques 34 2.3 Transposition Techniques 49 2.4 Rotor machines 50 Steganography 52 2.6 Recommended Reading 54 2.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 55 Chapter 3 Block Ciphers and the Data Encryption Standard 61 3.1 Traditional Block Cipher Structure 63 3.2 The Data encrypt 3.3 A DES Example 74 3.4 The Strength of DES 77 3.5 Block Cipher Design Principles 78 3.6 Recommended reading 80 3.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 81 Chapter 4 Basic Concepts in Number Theory and Finite Fields 85 4.1 Divisibility and the division algorithm 87 4.2 The Euclidean Algorithm 88 SHANNONIR 1V CONTENTS 4.3 Modular arithmetic 91 4.4 Groups, Rings, and Fields 99 4.5 Finite Fields of the Form GF(p) 102 4.6 Polynomial arithmetic 106 4.7 Finite Fields of the Form GF(2 )112 4.8 Recommended reading 124 4.9 Key terms, Review Questions, and Problems 124 Appendix 4A The Meaning of mod 127 Chapter 5 Advanced Encryption Standard 129 Finite field arithmetic 130 AES Structure 132 5.3 AES Transformation Functions 137 AEs Key expansion 148 An Aes Example 15 1 5.6 AES Implementation 155 5.7 Recommended reading 159 8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 160 Appendix 5a Polynomials with Coefficients in GF(2 )162 Appendix 5B Simplified AES 164 Chapter 6 Block Cipher Operation 174 6.1 Multiple Encryption and Triple DES 175 6.2 Electronic Code book 180 6.3 Cipher Block Chaining Mode 183 6.4 Cipher feedback Mode 185 6.5 Output Feedback mode 187 6.6 Counter Mode 189 6.7 XTS-AES Mode for Block-Oriented Storage Devices 191 6.8 Recommended reading 198 6.9 Key terms, Review Questions, and Problems 198 Chapter 7 Pseudorandom Number Generation and Stream Ciphers 202 7.1 Principles of pseudorandom Number generation 203 7.2 Pseudorandom number generators 210 7.3 Pseudorandom Number Generation Using a Block Cipher 213 7.4 Stream ciphers 219 7.5 RC4221 7.6 True Random Number generators 223 7.7 Recommended reading 227 7.8 Key terms, Review Questions, and Problems 228 PART TWO ASYMMETRIC CIPHERS 231 Chapter 8 More Number Theory 231 8.1 Prime numbers 232 Fermats and Euler's theorems 236 8.3 Testing for Primality 239 8.4 The Chinese remainder Theorem 242 SHANNONIR CONTENTSV 8.5 Discrete logarithms 244 8.6 Recommended Reading 249 8.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 250 Chapter 9 Public-Key Cryptography and rSA 253 9.1 Principles of Public-Key Cryptosystems 256 9. 2 The RSA Algorithm 264 9.3 Recommended Reading 278 9. 4 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 279 Appendix 9A The Complexity of Algorithms 283 Chapter 10 Other Public-Key Cryptosystems 286 10.1 Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange 287 10.2 Elgamal Cryptographic System 292 10.3 Elliptic Curve Arithmetic 295 10.4 Elliptic Curve Cryptography 30 10.5 Pseudorandom Number Generation Based on an asymmetric Cipher 306 10.6 Recommended reading 309 10.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 309 PART THREE CRYPTOGRAPHIC DATA INTEGRITY ALGORITHMS 313 Chapter 11 Cryptographic Hash Functions 313 11.1 Applications of Cryptographic Hash Functions 315 11.2 Two Simple hash Functions 320 113 Requirements and security 322 1.4 Hash Functions Based on Cipher Block Chaining 328 11.5 Hash Algorithm (sHa)329 SHA-3 33 11.7 Recommended Reading 351 11.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 351 Chapter 12 Message Authentication Codes 355 12.1 Message Authentication Requirements 357 12.2 Message Authentication Functions 357 12.3 Requirements for Message Authentication Codes 365 12.4 of Macs 367 12.5 MACs Based on hash functions: hmac 36 8 12.6 MACS Based on block ciphers: DAA and CMAC 373 127 Authenticated Encryption: CCM and GCM 376 12.8 Key Wrapping 382 12.9 Pseudorandom Number generation using hash Functions and macs 387 12.10 Recommended Reading 390 12.11 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 390 Chapter 13 Digital Signatures 393 13.1 Digital Signatures 395 13.2 Elgamal Digital Signature Scheme 398 13.3 Schnorr digital signature scheme 400 SHANNONIR V1 CONTENTS 13.4 NIST Digital Signature Algorithm 401 13.5 Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm 404 13.6 RSA-PSS Digital Signature Algorithm 407 13.7 Recommended Reading 412 13. 8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 412 PART FOUR MUTUAL TRUST 417 Chapter 14 Key management and Distribution 417 14.1 Symmetric Key distribution Using Symmetric Encryption 418 14.2 Symmetric Key Distribution Using Asymmetric Encryption 427 14.3 Distribution of Public Keys 430 14.4 X509 Certificates 435 14.5 Public-Key Infrastructure 443 14.6 Recommended Reading 445 14.7 Key terms, Review Questions, and Problems 446 Chapter 15 User Authentication 450 15.1 Remote User-Authentication Principles 451 15.2 Remote User-Authentication Using Symmetric Encryption 454 15.3 Kerberos 458 15.4 Remote User Authentication USing Asymmetric Encryption 476 15.5 Federated Identity management 478 15.6 Personal Identity Verification 484 15.7 Recommended Reading 491 15.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 491 PART FIVE NETWORK AND INTERNET SECURITY 495 Chapter 16 Network Access Control and Cloud Security 495 16.1 Network Access control 496 16.2 Extensible Authentication protocol 499 16.3 IeEE 802. 1X Port-Based Network Access Control 503 164 Cloud Computing 505 16.5 Cloud security risks and Countermeasures 512 166 Data protection in the cloud 514 167 Cloud Security as a service 517 168 Recommended reading 520 16.9 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 521 Chapter 17 Transport-Level Security 522 171 Web security Considerations 523 17.2 Secure sockets layer 525 17.3 Transport layer security 539 17.4 Https 543 17.5 Secure Shell (SSH)544 17.6 Recommended Reading 555 17.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 556 SHANNONIR CONTENTS V11 Chapter 18 Wireless Network Security 558 18.1 Wireless security 559 18.2 Mobile device security 562 18.3 IEEE 802 1 1 Wireless lan overview 566 18.4 IEEE 802 1 1i Wireless Lan Security 572 18.5 Recommended Reading 586 18.6 Key terms, Review Questions, and Problems 587 Chapter 19 Electronic Mail Security 590 19.1 Pretty Good Privacy 591 19.2 S/MIME 599 193 Domain Keys Identified mail 615 19.4 Recommended reading 622 19.5 Key terms, Review Questions, and Problems 622 Appendix 19A Radix-64 Conversion 623 Chapter 20 IP Security 626 20.1 IP Security Overview 628 20.2 IP Security policy 632 20.3 Encapsulating Security Payload 638 20.4 Combining Security Associations 645 20.5 Internet Key Exchange 649 20.6 Cryptographic Suites 657 20.7 Recommended Reading 65 9 20.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 659 APPENDICEs 661 Appendix a Projects for Teaching Cryptography and Network Security 661 A1 Sage Computer Algebra Projects 662 A.2 g Project 6 A.3 Block Cipher Projects 664 A.4 Laboratory exercises 664 A.5 Research Projects 664 A.6 g Projects 665 A7 Practical Security Assessments 665 A.8 Firewall Projects 666 A.9 Case studies 666 A 10 Writing Assignments 666 A11 Reading /Report Assignments 667 A 12 Discussion Topics 667 A ppendix B Sage Examples 668 B.1 Linear Algebra and Matrix Functionality 669 B.2 Chapter 2: Classical Encryption 670 B.3 Chapter 3: Block Ciphers and the Data Encryption Standard 673 B.4 Chapter 4: Basic Concepts in Number Theory and Finite Fields 677 B.5 Chapter 5: Advanced Encryption standard 684 SHANNONIR

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