摄影师的视界——迈克尔弗里曼摄影构图与设计

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摄影师的视界——迈克尔弗里曼摄影构图与设计
MICHAEL FREEMAN THE PHOTOGRAPHERS EYE Composition and Design for Better Digital Photos AMSTERDAM· BOSTO、· IIEIDELBERO· LONDON E W YORK· OXFORD· PARIS SAN DIEGO Focal AN FRANC1) NGYAPORF列)NFY■1(KY() Press ELSEVIER imprint af Hl 0 CONTENTS 8 CHAPTER 1: THE IMAGE FRAME 108 CHAPTER 4: COMPOSING WITH Linacre house Jordan Hill, oxford oX2 8DP UK 10 Frame dynamics LIGHT AND COLOR pyright @] The lex Press. All Rignts Reserved 18 Stitching and extending 14 Color in composition No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval 8 Color relationsh 22 Filling the frame k and white prior written permission of the publisher. 26 Dividing the frame 8 Horizon 128 CHAPTER 5: INTENT Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone: +44)1865 84330, fax: (+44)1865 30 Frames within frames 130 Conventional or challenging permissions@elsevier.com.Youmayalsocompleteyour 134 Reactive or planned queston-lineviatheElsevierhomepage(http://elsevier.com).byselecting 32 CHAPTER 2: DESIGN BASICS 36 Documentary or expressive 4 Contrast 138 Simple or complex A catalog record for this book is avai the Library of Cong 44 Dynamic tension 6 Style and fashi and SBN-0:0-240-809343 48 Rhythm ChaPteR 6: PROCESS BN-13:978c24080934 5o Pattern, text 152 The search for order For infor mation on all Focal Press publications visit our website at 52 Perspective and depth 156 Hunting www.focalpress.com 58 Visual weight 160 Case study: Japanese monk 6o Looking and interest 162 Repertoire his book was conceived, designed, and produced b 62 Content, weak strong 164 Reaction Spatio 64 CHAPTER 3: GRAPHIC Exploration PHOTOGRAPHIC ELEMENTS 66 A single point 174 Construction Editorial Director: Tom Mugridge 7o Several points Editor: Adam Junipe Art Director: Julie Weir 72 Horizontal lines 180 Photographs together 74 Vertical lines Design Assistant: Kate Hay al li 186 Syntax 80 Curves Printed and bound in ch Acknowledgments Bibliography 88 Circles and rectangles wether to grow 98 Moment 100 Optic INTRODUCTION how you build a picture, what a picture consists of how shapes are related to each other, how spaces are filled, how the whole thing must have a kind of unity PAUL STRAND tal, but the best it can do is to help realize Germany in the 1920s, talking ahout color in art, apers hay told his students: If vou unkno and what they mean are thick on the ground, a complex and shifting relationship with th re masterpieces in color, then unknowledge usually by non-photographers. Not that there art there is the fascination with is your way. But if you are unable to create is anything at all wrong with the perceptive the new, with gadgets, with bright, shiny toys masterpieces in color out of your unknowledge, outsider's view; indeed, the distance of this kind At the same time there is, at least among those then you ought to look for knowledge. This of objectivity brings new, valuable insights. who are reasonably sell-confident, a belief that applies Lu art in general, including photography abil an rely on natural abili could not join the of cameras. We need the equipment and yet are a good knowledge of the principles of design. In according to-the-Photographer-y hotography. cautious, sometimes even dismissive about ther graphic arts, design is taught as a matter One ot the things that is clearly needed tor investigating the subject ("T resolved to start successtul photography is a proper balance in this attention than it deserves, and here I set out to my inquiry with no more than a few photographs, conflict. Nevertheless, there have been very few lress some of this lack the ones I was sure existed fur me. Nothing (o du attempts in publishing to cleal comprehensively A relalively new element is the rapid shill with cumpusitiun in photography, as opposed Lu from filrm-based photography to digital, and Chis book, however is intended lu be the technical issues. This is a rich and demanding this, at least in my opinion, has the potential different, to explore the actual process of taking subj photographs. I think I'd like to call it an insider red outright. Most people using a camera image workflow between shooting and printing view, though that smacks of hubris, because Tm for the first time try to master the controls but is now crawing on the experience uf photographe ignore the ideas. They photograph intuitiv the photographer, Imust of us now spend much great deal in the process uf making an framer view in the This alone encourages more sludy, more analysis same way. Anyone who does it well is a naLu Ise secing the resull later. This will never prevent photographer. But knowing in advance why sune posl-productiun, with all its many pussi seem to work better than others, better eq restores to photographers the control over the linal image that wus inherent in black-and-white do with the circumstances and intentions uf the One important reason why intuitive rather lilm photogr aphy but extrenely difficult in cole than informed photography is so common is his coMprehensive control inevitably affects show hum photographers compose their images, that shooting is such an casy, imnecliate process. composition, and the simple Lacl that so much and how the many skills of organizing an image that goes into a photograph, Iron none lo increases the need to consider the image and ils in the viewfinder can be imp considerable, the image is created in an insta possibilities ever more carefully. nt decisions in photograph as soon as the shutter release is pressed. Thi neans that a the image itself: the reasons for taking il, and and without thoughl, and because it can, it ulten Le way it looks. ' The lechnology of course, is johannes ltlen, the great Bauhaus leacher in hotographs are created within a used for later cropping. Large format spatial context, and that context is film, such as 4xS-inch and 8x10-inch, is objects move into frame and immediately the viewfinder frame. This may be carried large enough to allow cropping without interact with them The last chapter in thi through unchanged to the fin luch loss of resolution in the final book, Process, deals with managing this whether print or on-screen, or it may be and is also often cropped, particularly in H cropped or extended. In whichever case, commercial work. Now digital photography view and frame edges. It is complex, even the borders of the image, nearly always adds its own twist to this, as stitching when dealt with intuitively If the subject fluences on becomes more widely used for panoramas is static, like a landscape, it is easy to spend what is arranged inside them phy, the photographs in the anea than in painting. The reason is that while be taken in less time than it takes for ther either crop or extend the frame. Most a painting is built up from nothing, out of to be recognized as such 35mm film photography has been perception and imagination, the process of Facility at using this frame depends concerned with tight, final composition photography is one of selection from real on two things: knowing the principles of at the time of shooting, and at times this cenes and events. Potential photographs design, and the experience that comes has led to a culture of demonstrating the exist in their entirety inside the frame every from taking photographs regularly. The CHAPTERT fact by showing the rebates (the frame time the photographer rais two combine to form a photographer's edges of the film) in the final print-a and looks through the viewfinder. Indeed, way of seeing things, a kind of frame THE IMAGE FRAME has been released. Square- format film, as photography, the frame is the stage on as potential images. What contributes to thich the image evolves. Moving around a this frame vision is the subject of the first to comfortable composition, and is often scene with the camera to the eye, the frame section of this volume. THEM点 GE FRAME FRAME DYNAMICS setting for the image is the picture frame THE EMPTY FRAME Just the existence of a plain rectangular frame is fixed at the time of shooting, although it always possible later to adjust the shape of the n the middle, drift frame to the picture you have taken. Nevertheless, up and left, then back down, and right, while at point-either though peripheral vision or (sce pages 58-61), do not undereslinale the by flicking--registers the"sharp"corners. The influence of the dark surround seen through a camera viewfinder bright rectangle surrounded by blackness, al he presence of the frame is usually strongly fel 域▲D| AGONAL TENS|oN Fxen though experience may help you to ignore photograph comes from the interplay of diagonals to shoot to a different format intuition will work with the rectangular frame. Although the diagonal against this, encouraging you to make a design saving at the time of shooti is to align one or two of l lows them to create tension in this picture. them with the frame shown at the top ot this page: that of a horizontal In the case of this office block, the alignment of frame in the proportions 3: 2. Professionally, this is the most widely used camera format, and holding untidines it horizontally is the easiest method. As an empty frane it has certain dynamic influences, as the ke this emphasizes the cliagrarn shows, although these lend Lo be felt geometry of an image only in very minimal and delicately toned images More often, the dynamics of lines, shapes, and colors in the photograph take over completely treatment the photographer chooses, th inlluence on the image. The examples shown here are all ones in which the horrzontal and vertical borders, and the corners, contribute They have heen used as references for diagonal lines within the pictures, and the angles that have been created are important fealure <AINTERSECTING FOR ABSTRACTION reaking the normal rules, a panoramic frame is the frame can be made lo interact strongly with of the back of an adobe chu lines ol t been to show the pholographer's intention If you chouse to the top of this building and the lower buttressing shoot more loosely, in a casual the frame will not seem so important. lot a literal version of the church, but the geometry and textures of the unusual planes. Squeezing the on these two pages with les image at the top and bottom removes some o formally co picture taken on a Calcutta e rea lism, and compels the eye to consider the THE IMAGE FRAME THE IMAGE FRAME 11 FRAME SHAPE he shape of the viewfinder frame(and LCd The reason for these proportions is a matter The net result is that a horizontal frame historical accident; there are no compelling is natural and unremarkable. It influences the the image takes. Despite the ease of crop aesthetic reasons why it should he so. Indeed of an image but not in an insistent later, there exists a powerful intuitive pressure more"natural proportions would be les at the time of shooting to compose right up to gated, as evidenced by the bulk of the ways in and so to most overall landscapes and general the cages uf the frane of which images are displayed painting canvases, iews. The horizontal component to the Frame prurience to ignore those parts of an image thal cornpuler monitors, phulugraphic printing paper, encourages a horizontial arrangement of clements, ok and magazine formats, and so on. part o aturally enough It is marginally more natural to never get used to this. the historical reason was that 3.5mm film was lace an image lower in the frame than higher- ost photography long considered too small for good enlai this ter ance the sensation of stability? Id the elongated shape gave more area. photograph there are likely in other graphic arts Until digital photography, Nevertheless, its popularity demonstrates how to be many other influences. Placing a subject by tar the most common format was 3: 2-that easily our sense of intuitive composition adapts. or horizon high in the frame produces a slight of the standard 3.5mm camera, measuring verwhelmingly, this format is shot downward-lo 36x24mm--but now that the physical width horizontally, and there are three reasons lur this. which can have mildly negative association of film is no lon he first is pure ergonomics. It is difficult to ally vertical subj of low- and iddle-end cal ed design a camera used at eye level so that it is just as elongation of a 2: 3 frame is an advantage, and the the less elongated, more " natural"4: 3 format that easy to photograph vertically as horizontally, and human figure, standing, is the most commonly fits more comfortably on printing papers and ew manufacturers have even bothered. sLRs are and vertical subject-a fortunate coincidence, monitor displays. The question of which aspect de to be used for horizontal pictures. Turning tios are perceived as the most comfortable then on their side is just not as comfortable, and rarely completely satisfactor is a study in its own righl, but in principle, must photographers tend to avoid iL. The secund A PANORAMA there seems to be a tendency loward longer reason is more fundamental. Our binocular The correspondence of the horizon line and the format makes a horizontally(the increasing popularity ul wide vision means that we see horizontally. There is. horizontal frame natural for most long scenic views. This is the fi creen and letterbox formats for television ) but trame as such, as human vision involves paying MAN VISI grounds. ss elongated for vertically composed image attention to local detail and scanning a scene ur natural view of the world is binocular and christened at the time it was built"the finest view in all of England horizontal, so a horizontal picture format seems The length is necessary for this controlled scene, but depth is not THE 3: 2 FRAME ral view ul the world is in h has been the form ul a vague-edgecl, horizontal oval, and beca use our eyes focus sharply at only a small angle, transferred seamlessly to digital SLRs, creating a standard horizontal film frame is a reasonable and the surrounding image is progressively indistinct. <A THE STANDARD 3: 2 FRAME Note, however, that this is not conventional blurring, Its extra length when compared to the 4: 3 frame of consumer cameras approximation. The final reason is that 3: 2 s edges can be detected with peripheral vision and most monitor displays makes this aspect ratio interesting to work professional and serious amateur photographers proportions are ollen perceplLlally too elongated The limits of the view, here shown in gray, are al in. There is always a sense of horizontality. In this photograph of the Lord on the one hanl, and everyone else on the other. Lo work comfortably in portrait composition normally not perceived, just ignored Mayor's show in the City of London, the bas balance between the soldier in the left foreground and the ornate coach nd, with a clear left-to-right ve ASPECT RATIO This is the width-to-height ratio of an image or display. Here. tically is 2: 3 THE IMAGE FRAME THE IMAGE FRAME 4: 3 AND SIMILAR FRAMES SHOOTING VERTICALLY photography and on-screen presentations, these tatter” frames are the R时 oportionately, the object goes. The natura f magazi the focus of attention downward, and demonstrates formats. In other words. they are the least insistent this reason, professional photographers usually rith and most accommodating tu the eye. In the cays horizontally because orizontal frames, there is an assumption that the cn there was a rich variety of large-formal filin, naturalness of horizon tal vision reinforces the formats included5×4 ×8-inch,14x11 desire to scan from side to side, and a h other things can rest. This works unremarkably inch, and 8ax61z-inch. There is nowy a reduced ith a non-elongated subject, most people choice, but the proportions all work in much the tend to place it below the center of the frame the upper part of the picture under-used same way, and equally for rollfilm formats, digital backs, and lower -end digital cameras In terms of composition, the frame dynami impose less on the image because there is less of a dominant direction than with 3: 2 At the same time, that there is a distinction between height into the view, with the understanding that the horizontal or vertical. Compare this witi the difficulties of a square format, suffers from lack of direction. As noted opposite, A)SWITCHING ORIENTATION A VERTICAL SUBJECTS IN HORIZONTAL FRAMES these proportions are very comfortable lur most In these photographs of a man Although this format is not very well suited to vertically composed images sleeping an the Khyber rail vertical subjects like standing figures and ta he natural balance occurs when buildings, inertia often encourages photographers is head is placed slightly low in to make it work as well as poss the vertical shot. and to one side to off he subject like this, so as to de IN THE FRAME STANDING FIGUR own, and the bottom edge of a picture frame lasses of subject which suits a vertical forma SWITCHING ORIeNTaTIoN2 represents a base; thus gravity affects vertica others include tall buildings, trees, many lIly from the air, the composition. Subjects tend to be placed below plants, bottles, and drinking glasses, doorway the center the more so with tall formats, as in and arc this shot of a Bang kok river boat(the direction 人 AN UNINSISTENT FRAME was also needed for passible full page use. Switching to vertical dominate composition less than 3: 2 or panoramas meant placing the subject lor here is usually more flexibility at the time of in the trame and finding another hooting. Indeed, this horizontal of Angkor Wat element(another spring) to fill Cambodia ually cropped in at th THE IMAGE FRAME 5 上 PATTERNS WITHOUT BIAS UBDIVIDING THE SQUARE Patterns and other forme Th al dimensions of a fit has no directional emphasis. nhance the sq uare's stability: diagonals are does not intrude on the Radial and other completely symmetrical subjects are particularly well-suited ta the perfect equilibrium of the square. Their precision is camplementary, but exact alignment is essential emphasizes the sensation of focus al on the cente is by means of diagonals and diamonds. RE they have no alignment. Most things are longer frame, and the symmetry of the all other photographic frames are g the eve of portions, one Is to align the main axis of an image with the longer the center. fixed: the square. A lew lilIm cameras have this sicles ol a rectiangular picture Irarne. Hence, most unusual format--Lunlusuall in that very few images broad landscape views are generally hanctledl interesting: it makes a change Iron the nornal lend thenselves well lo squire composition. In horizontal pictures, andl rmost standing figures imprecise clesign of most photographs. Ilowever, general, it is the most difficult format lo work d few such imag o bias frane are concerned with escaping the tyranny Its sides are in perfect 1: I ProporTions, and its perfect equilibrium imagine a vertical or horizontal direction to we ought lu look a little more closely il of space. Here lies the second reason for the nsympathelic nature of square proportions: they Practically, this means compusing l arrangemen. In part, this has Lo dlo with the axis impuse a formal rigidity on the image. It is hard the viewfinder, lo allow a certain amount of fre of the subject. Few shapes are so compact that 3 16 THE THE|M点 GE FRAME

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