blender 的游戏引擎

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大家好! 这⼀一篇是对Blender游戏引擎当中使用Python脚本的简要介绍。指南的目 的是教你如何在BGE中使用Python脚本,并且避免⼀一些典型的问题。 这篇指南不会教你怎样使用Python。如果你想要学习Python语言,请阅 读相关教程。(例如. ByteOfPython) 当你为BGE书写Python脚本的时候,推荐你把Blender的Python API打开 参考。你可以在http://www.blender.orgz找到全部API文档。 请注意:BGE不支持叫做bpy的Blender内置API。当你在Blender里面刚刚 开始游戏项目时可以使用,但是最后当游戏完成时,脚本当
CENGAGE Learning Professional, Technica. Reference Game Development with Blender o 2014 Cengage Learning PTR Dalai Felinto and Mike Pan CENGAGE and CENGAGE LEARNING are registered trademarks of Publisher and General Manager, Cengage Learning, Inc, within the United States and certain other Cengage Learning PTR jurisdictions Stacy L. Liquet ALL RIGHTS RESERVED, No part of this work covered by the copy Associate Director of Marketing: right herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in an Sarah Panella form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, Manager of Editorial Services: taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information Heather Talbot storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section Senior Marketing Manager: 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the Mark Hughes orior written permission of the publisher. Acquisitions Editor: Heather Hurley Project Editor: Marta Justak For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706 Technical Reviewer: Mitchell Stokes For permission to use material from this text or product Copy Editor: Donna Poehner submit all requests online at cengage. com/permissions Interior Layout Tech: MPS Limited Further permissions questions can be emailed to Cover Designer: Mike Tanamachi Indexer: Sharon Shock Proofreader: Sam Garvey Blender is a registered trademark of Blender Foundation The Blender logo has been used with permission of Blender Foundation. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners Library of Congress Control Number: 2010922107 SBN-13:978-1435456624 SBN-10:1-435456629 Cengage Learning PTR 20 Channel Center Street Boston, MA 02210 SA Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized lear solutions with office locations around the globe, induding Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, and Japan Locate your local office at: intern. al cengage. com/regio Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd For your lifelong learning so visit cengageptr com Visit our corp rate website at cengage. cor Printed in the United States of America 1234567151413 To my niece for being such a special little princess Dalai To my mom and dad, who have done everything for me. Mike AcKN口 WLEDGMENTS The driving force of an open source project is its user community. We want to start y thanking our user community for the overall support they have shown for Blender and specifical ally to us for this book. We would also like to thank the Blender Foundation and its chairman, Ton Roosen daal, for facilitating the development of this amazing software, Blender. We are grate ful for a remarkable team of developers, who have tirelessly worked to improve the Blender game engine: Benoit Bolsee, Brecht van Lommel, Campbell Barton, Daniel Stokes, Mitchell Stokes, and many others From the vast Blender community, we would like to thank three people in particular. Mitchell Stokes, for tech reviewing this book and for helping to ensure that the game engine bugs we reported during this book were squashed in time for this release Yorik van Havre for helping us by peer reviewing half the book and providing valu able feedback. Stephen Danic for bringing us the embryonic project of this book and entrusting it to us, resulting in what you have in your hands Lastly, our deepest appreciation goes to our families and friends who have supported us on th S Journey i FOREWORD It must have been sometime in 1998 when I first downloaded a copy of a strange and unknown 3D application called Blender. It wasn't a particularly good experience-It didn't look like anything I had ever seen, there was no documentation available at all, and there was no way to get in touch with other users. I got in touch with Ton Roosendaal, and in the years that followed I wrote tutorials, worked for Ton at his company, Not a Number, and founded BlenderNation, which is still the main news site for Blender During that time, what has fascinated me most was the Ble ender community-a worldwide loose band of artists, teachers, software developers, and 3D lovers in general-all of them attracted by the notion of this high-quality, powerful, op source, free 3D package. Unlike the communities of many similar but closed applications, the people in this community tend to be very open to each other as well: ask a question, and yo receive an answer. Mention a bug in the software, and someone may fix it for yo before the day is over. Ask to become involved, and we will find a place for yo And this generosity is not limited just to the hobbyist users-it extends to the many professionals as well. And professionals they are, especially during the last few years. Blender is gaining popularity fast in environments like movie studios, special effects companies, adver tising agencies, and schools. The community is rife with examples of their outstand ing work, which in turn convinces more people of Blender's qualities Foreword The fact that Blender has a built-in game engine (or rather, a fully embedded inter active environment) is one of its lesser-known features. But like the other aspects of the software, it has seen a huge leap in quality: it now has a very capable scripting environment, GLSL rendering, and node-based materials. It is an extremely useful tool, not just for making games but also for creating interactive simulations of any kind Seeing people like Dalai and Mike invest their time in the huge undertaking of writ- Ing a book about the Blender Game Engine gives me courage that it will earn the popularity it de eserves Bart veldhuizen Bart is a long-time Blender evangelist who has actively participated in the education and dissemination of Blender. He was known for his work as a community manager for Blender before it was even open source. More recently, Bart founded BlenderNation and Blender Network, two of the central hubs for Blender users around the world ABOUT THE AUTHORS Dalai Felinto, who is currently living in vancouver, Canada, was born in sunny Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He has been using Blender since beginning his unde graduate studies in Architecture and Urban Planning in 2003. His participation in the Blender Comm includes papers, workshops, and talks presented at events such as BlenderPRO in Brazil. Che Blender in Argentina. Blender Conference in Amsterdam, view Conference in Turin. Blender Ven in Venezuela, an Blender Wo orkshop in Canada. He has contributed patches and code to Blender since version 2 47 Dalai uses Blender and the game engine in his work as a science communicator at the University of British Columbia, Canada. However, his day job doesn't stop him from doing freelance Blender projects around the world. His latest works have been for Italy, England, and the Netherlands Dalai's dream career move is to land a job in the movie industry, working at Pix Follow his adventures at dalaifelinto com About the Authors Mike Pan is a CG generalist who started using d Blender 10 years ago, before it was open sourced Mike's interest in Blender includes everything from special effects to compositing, and from real-time gra ohics to scripting. He has given talks at the Blender Conference in Amsterdam, hosted workshops at the View Conference in Turin and Blender Workshop in Vancouver, and conducted a three-day Blender course in Kerala, India. Mike is currently the lead program- mer for a two-year project at Harvard Medical School to develop a biomolecular visualization software using Blender. Before that, he worked at the University of British Columbia with Dalai on a marine ecosystem visualization project. CONTENTS X目 Introduction Chapter 1 Game Blender in a Nutshell Blender History About blender,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,, About the Game Engine Future 8 3D Basics 19 Quickstart .Be Blender Philosophy. 36 Onward Chapter 2 First Game 37 37 Game Idea 38 Game Elements File Organization, Datablocks, and Linking 38 41 modeling 49 Texturing 52 Rigging Animation..…·,·…···:···· 58 Camera and Keyboard World and Environment 60 Artificial Intell gence All You Can Eat... Scoring Syster Contents X Music for Your Ears .,,,.,,70 Where to Go from Here ,,,72 Chapter 3 Logic Bricks 73 册和面 aaa里·甲 General Overview 74 Architecture........,,,,,,,. ...76 Interface 77 Sensors 82 Controllers ...,94 Actuators,,,,,,.,,,··· ....,,100 State Machine 128 Sharing and Group Instancing ........... ..,..129 To the Infinite and Beyond.................,. 132 Chapter 4 Animation 133 Every Pot Has a Cover,,,,,,.,,,,.,. ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,..134 Animation Cycles ........,,..,.....,,....,,......135 Armature and Poses 138 Bone Constraints ...142 Bone Parenting g ,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.161 Shape Keys 1.·“ .....162 Tutorials....,..,.......,.,,,,,,,.166 Pre-Tutorial .,,,,。......,,,....166 Animation Cycle Tutorial .......................................168 Idle Animation .184 Hats Off to Momo and Vice-Versa ..,,,,,,,,,,.,..194 Mango Jambo Special Animation................199 To Learn More 199 Chapter 5 Graphics....... ,,,,。,,,。..,..,.,.,201 Visual Style 202 Designing for Real Time ·,,,,,,.............202 Shading Modes ·,.····,......,.,,,,,,.,..206 GLSL Mod 209 Multitexture 235 Singletexture ....236 Lights ,,,236 World Settings 236 Texture Painting.,.,..... ··,···…·,·,,·.,,,,,,.,..237 Custom GLSL Shader....,,…………… 239 2 D Filters,,,,,,·-,,.....247 Text 251

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